Vehicle and Traffic (Vehicle Standards) Regulations 2014


Tasmanian Crest
Vehicle and Traffic (Vehicle Standards) Regulations 2014

I, the Lieutenant-Governor in and over the State of Tasmania and its Dependencies in the Commonwealth of Australia, acting with the advice of the Executive Council make the following regulations under the Vehicle and Traffic Act 1999 .

18 June 2014

A. M. BLOW

Lieutenant-Governor

By His Excellency's Command,

M. T. (Rene) HIDDING

Minister for Infrastructure

PART 1 - Preliminary
Division 1 - Short title and commencement

1.   Short title

These regulations may be cited as the Vehicle and Traffic (Vehicle Standards) Regulations 2014 or the Vehicle Standards.

2.   Commencement

These regulations take effect on 1 July 2014.
Division 2 - Vehicle Standards and offences

3.   Vehicle Standards

These regulations –
(a) prescribe vehicle standards for Tasmania; and
(b) are referred to, collectively, within these regulations as the Vehicle Standards.

Note The Vehicle Standards set standards that vehicles must comply with to be driven on public streets.

The Australian Design Rules (ADRs) - see Division 1 of Part 3 - are rules for designing and building vehicles. Imported vehicles must also comply with the ADRs.

The Vehicle Standards require a vehicle that is subject to an ADR when built or imported to continue to comply with the ADR.

The Vehicle Standards also apply certain other standards (adopted standards) that are intended to complement the ADRs.

The ADRs do not cover:

vehicles built before 1969;

combinations of vehicles of any age; or

every safety feature for vehicles built between 1969 and 1988.

Those matters are covered by the Vehicle Standards and dimension limits for vehicles are set out in the Vehicle and Traffic (Vehicle Operations) Regulations 2014 .

In most cases, if a vehicle complies with the Vehicle Standards and the Vehicle and Traffic (Vehicle Operations) Regulations 2014 it is suitable for use on public streets.

4.   Vehicle Standards offences

(1)  Except as provided by this regulation, a person must not use, or cause or permit the use of, a vehicle or combination on a public street unless –
(a) the vehicle or combination complies with each provision of the Vehicle Standards applying to the vehicle or combination; and
(b) the vehicle or combination, and each part of the vehicle or combination and its equipment, is in a safe and roadworthy condition; and
(c) each light, reflector, sign, writing, colouring or band required to be fitted, lit or displayed on the vehicle or combination under the Vehicle Standards is clean and unobscured.
Penalty:  Fine not exceeding 20 penalty units.
(2)  Subregulation (1)(a) does not apply to a vehicle or combination if –
(a) it is used on a public street under one of the following authorisations:
(i) a permit issued by the Commission under Part 7 of the Vehicle and Traffic (Vehicle Operations) Regulations 2014 ;
(ii) a short term unregistered vehicle permit issued under the Vehicle and Traffic (Driver Licensing and Vehicle Registration) Regulations 2010 ;
(iii) a conditional registration under the Vehicle and Traffic (Driver Licensing and Vehicle Registration) Regulations 2010 ;
(iv) an exemption under section 28 or 29 of the Vehicle and Traffic Act 1999 ;
(v) an exemption, approval or determination issued by the Registrar under the Vehicle and Traffic Act 1999 ; and
(b) the authorisation excuses or has the effect of excusing the vehicle or combination from having to comply with the applicable provision of the Vehicle Standards; and
(c) the vehicle or combination is being used in accordance with the authorisation.
(3)  Subregulation (1)(a) does not apply to or in relation to the failure of a motor vehicle's emission control system to comply with applicable provisions of the Vehicle Standards if, despite the non-compliance, the system is continuing to operate essentially in accordance with its original design.
(4)  It is a defence in proceedings under subregulation (1)(a) to show that, at the relevant time, the vehicle or combination failing to comply with an applicable provision of the Vehicle Standards was –
(a) being repaired, or being tested in the course of being repaired, so that it would comply with the Vehicle Standards; and
(b) not endangering its occupants or other road users while being so repaired or tested.
Division 3 - Some features of the Vehicle Standards

5.   Definitions and dictionary

(1)  The dictionary in Part 15 defines certain words and expressions, and includes signpost definitions to words and expressions defined elsewhere in the Vehicle Standards.
(2)  A definition in the Vehicle Standards applies to each use of the word or expression in the Vehicle Standards, unless the contrary intention appears.

6.   Diagrams

(1)  A diagram in the Vehicle Standards is part of the Vehicle Standards.
(2)  A diagram of something is an illustrative example of the thing in black and white, but does not represent its dimensions or the dimensions of any part of it.

7.   Notes

A note in the Vehicle Standards is explanatory and is not part of the Vehicle Standards.

8.   Examples

(1)  An example, whether or not in the form of a diagram, in the Vehicle Standards is part of the Vehicle Standards.
(2)  If the Vehicle Standards include an example of the operation of a provision of the Vehicle Standards –
(a) the example is not exhaustive; and
(b) the example does not limit, and may extend, the meaning of the provision; and
(c) the example and the provision are to be read in the context of each other and of the other provisions of the Vehicle Standards, but, if the example and the provision as so read are inconsistent, the provision prevails.
PART 2 - Application of Vehicle Standards

9.   Application to vehicles and combinations on public streets

(1)  Subject to subregulation (2) , the Vehicle Standards apply to light vehicles and light combinations on public streets.
(2)  Part 1, regulation 43(5) and (6) , regulation 46(3) , (4) and (5) , Division 18 of Part 8 , Part 13 and Part 15 apply to –
(a) light vehicles and light combinations on public streets; and
(b) heavy vehicles and heavy combinations on public streets.

10.   Vehicles to which Vehicle Standards do not apply

The Vehicle Standards do not apply to a vehicle designed to be controlled by a person walking next to it.

Note Also, the Vehicle Standards do not apply to vehicles that are specifically excluded from the definitions of motor vehicle and trailer in section 3(1) of the Vehicle and Traffic Act 1999 .

11.   Non-application of Vehicle Standards: exemption under other laws

(1)  A provision of the Vehicle Standards does not apply to a vehicle or combination if the vehicle or combination is exempt from –
(a) the provision under another law of this jurisdiction; or
(b) the corresponding provision of the law of another jurisdiction.
(2)  However, the vehicle or combination is exempt only if all conditions of the exemption, if any, are being complied with.

12.   Non-application of Vehicle Standards: inconsistent ADR requirements

(1)  A provision of Parts 5 to 13 of the Vehicle Standards does not apply to a vehicle if –
(a) the provision is inconsistent with a requirement of a second or third edition ADR applying to the vehicle; and
(b) the vehicle complies with the requirement.
(2)  Subregulation (1) does not apply if the vehicle is not of the same class or type as the vehicles to which the ADR requirements apply.

Example:

As the second or third edition ADR do not apply to a truck built in 1968, the truck must comply with regulation 118. If the owner of such a truck modified the brakes so that they did comply with the second edition ADR, any requirement in regulation 118 in relation to the truck’s brakes that was inconsistent with the second edition ADR would no longer apply to the truck. However, if the modified brakes only comply with a rule of the second edition ADR that only applies to passenger cars, then regulation 118 does apply, as subregulation (1) would not apply as a result of subregulation (2), because a truck is not a passenger car.

13.   Non-application of Vehicle Standards: Motor Vehicle Standards Act approvals

A provision of Parts 5 to 13 of the Vehicle Standards does not apply to a vehicle if –
(a) the vehicle does not comply with a requirement of an ADR applying to the vehicle; and
(b) the provision of the Vehicle Standards corresponds to the requirement of the ADR; and
(c) despite the non-compliance, approval has been given, under section 10A(2) or (3) of the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 of the Commonwealth, to place identification plates on vehicles of that type; and
(d) the vehicle complies with the approval conditions, if any.

Note 1 Section 10A(2) of the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 of the Commonwealth deals with vehicles that do not comply with an ADR, but the non-compliance is only in minor and inconsequential respects.

Note 2 Section 10A(3) of that Act deals with vehicles that do not comply with an ADR, and the non-compliance is not minor and inconsequential, but the vehicle will be safe to use if conditions are complied with.

PART 3 - Australian Design Rules

Note 1
This Part applies the second and third edition ADRs to various vehicles.

Note 2
Under this Part, a vehicle that is subject to ADRs when it is built generally remains subject to the ADRs throughout its life. However, a vehicle need not comply with a standard if the standard is replaced by, or is inconsistent with, a later standard and the vehicle complies with the later standard. Older vehicles may, therefore, be fitted with any equipment allowed on newer vehicles.

Note 3
Vehicles that are modified must continue to comply with the Vehicle Standards. Modifications to a heavy vehicle must be undertaken in accordance with Vehicle Standards Bulletin 6 (VSB 6). Modifications to a light vehicle must be undertaken in accordance with Vehicle Standards Bulletin 14 (VSB 14).

Note 4
The following provisions of the Vehicle Standards apply to a vehicle instead of the corresponding ADR requirement:
regulation 36(2) (horns and alarms);
regulation 47 (5) (window tinting);
regulation 54 (tyre speed category requirements);
regulation 104 (fitting of warning lights and signs);
regulation 107(4) (other lights and reflectors).
Division 1 - Interpretation

14.   What is an ADR

An ADR (Australian Design Rule) is a national standard.

15.   What is a national standard

A national standard is a national standard under the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 of the Commonwealth.

16.   References to national standards

Unless the contrary intention appears, a reference in the Vehicle Standards to a national standard is a reference to the national standard as in force from time to time.

17.   What is a second edition ADR

A second edition ADR is a national standard incorporated in the document described as the Australian Design Rules for Motor Vehicle Safety, Second Edition originally published by the then Commonwealth Department of Transport.

18.   What is a third edition ADR

A third edition ADR is a national standard incorporated in the document described as the Australian Design Rules for Motor Vehicles and Trailers, Third Edition published by the Federal Office of Road Safety of the Commonwealth Department of Transport and Regional Development.
Division 2 - Compliance with ADRs

19.   Compliance with second edition ADRs

(1)  If a second edition ADR recommends that the ADR should apply to the design and construction of a light vehicle, the light vehicle must comply with the ADR.
(2)  If a second edition ADR contains a requirement for a type of equipment fitted to a light vehicle built on or after a stated time, any equipment of the same type fitted to the light vehicle after it is built must comply with –
(a) the requirement as in force when the vehicle was built; or
(b) if the requirement is amended after the vehicle is built and before the equipment is fitted, the requirement as in force –
(i) when the vehicle was built; or
(ii) when the equipment was fitted; or
(iii) at any time between when the vehicle was built and the equipment was fitted.
(3)  However, a light vehicle, or equipment fitted to a light vehicle, need not comply with a recommendation or requirement of a second edition ADR if –
(a) the recommendation or requirement is replaced by, or is inconsistent with, a requirement of a third edition ADR applying to the vehicle or equipment; and
(b) the vehicle or equipment complies with the requirement of the third edition ADR.
(4)  If a second edition ADR allows a light vehicle built on or after a stated time to be fitted with equipment, a light vehicle built before the time may also be fitted with the equipment.
(5)  If an ADR that applies to a light vehicle under subregulation (1) is rescinded, the light vehicle must continue to comply with the ADR as if the ADR had not been rescinded, unless subregulation (3) applies to the light vehicle.
(6)  If an ADR that has a requirement that applies to any equipment under subregulation (2) is rescinded, the equipment must continue to comply with the requirement as if the ADR had not been rescinded, unless subregulation (3) applies to the equipment.
(7)  If subregulation (3) applies to a light vehicle or equipment and the requirement of the third edition ADR ceases to exist, the light vehicle or equipment must continue to comply with that requirement as if it were still in existence.

20.   Compliance with third edition ADRs

(1)  If a third edition ADR applies to the design and construction of a light vehicle, the light vehicle must comply with the ADR.
(2)  If a third edition ADR contains a requirement for a type of equipment fitted to a light vehicle built on or after a stated time, any equipment of the same type fitted to the light vehicle after it is built must comply with –
(a) the requirement as in force when the vehicle was built; or
(b) if the requirement is amended after the vehicle is built and before the equipment is fitted, the requirement as in force –
(i) when the vehicle was built; or
(ii) when the equipment was fitted; or
(iii) at any time between when the vehicle was built and the equipment was fitted.
(3)  However, a light vehicle, or equipment fitted to a light vehicle, need not comply with a requirement of a third edition ADR if –
(a) the requirement is replaced by, or is inconsistent with, a requirement of a later version of the ADR applying to the vehicle or equipment; and
(b) the vehicle or equipment complies with the requirement of the later version.
(4)  If a third edition ADR allows a light vehicle built on or after a stated time to be fitted with equipment, a light vehicle built before the time may also be fitted with the equipment.
(5)  If an ADR that applies to a light vehicle under subregulation (1) is rescinded, the light vehicle must continue to comply with the ADR as if the ADR had not been rescinded, unless subregulation (3) applies to the vehicle.
(6)  If an ADR that has a requirement that applies to any equipment under subregulation (2) is rescinded, the equipment must continue to comply with the requirement as if the ADR had not been rescinded, unless subregulation (3) applies to the equipment.
(7)  If subregulation (3) applies to a light vehicle or equipment and the requirement of the later version of the ADR ceases to exist, the light vehicle or equipment must continue to comply with that requirement as if it were still in existence.

21.   Exception to compliance with ADRs: light vehicles that are not road vehicles

A light vehicle need not comply with an ADR applied by regulation 19(1) or regulation 20(1) if a determination or declaration under section 5B of the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 of the Commonwealth provides that the vehicle is not a road vehicle for the purposes of that Act.

22.   Exception to compliance with ADRs: Motor Vehicle Standards Act

(1)  A light vehicle need not comply with an ADR applied by regulation 19(1) or regulation 20(1) if –
(a) despite non-compliance with the ADR, approval has been given, under section 10A(2) or (3) of the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 of the Commonwealth, to place identification plates on vehicles of that type; and
(b) the vehicle complies with the approval conditions, if any.

Note See notes to regulation 13

(2)  A light vehicle need not comply with an ADR applied by regulation 19(1) or regulation 20(1) if –
(a) the vehicle may be supplied to the market under section 14A(1) of the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 of the Commonwealth; and
(b) for a vehicle for which an approval has been given under that subsection, the vehicle complies with the approval conditions, if any.
(3)  A light vehicle need not comply with an ADR applied by regulation 19(1) or regulation 20(1) if –
(a) the vehicle may be used in transport in Australia under section 15(2) of the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 of the Commonwealth; and
(b) for a vehicle for which an approval has been given under that subsection, the vehicle complies with the approval conditions, if any.

23.   Partial exception to compliance with ADRs: personally imported light vehicles

(1)  In this regulation –
personally imported vehicle means a light vehicle built after 1968 that is imported into Australia under regulation 13 of the Motor Vehicle Standards Regulations 1989 of the Commonwealth  –
(a) by a person who –
(i) owned the vehicle before 9 May 2000; and
(ii) owned and used the vehicle for a continuous period of at least 3 months immediately before it was imported into Australia; or
(b) by a person who –
(i) owned the vehicle on or after 9 May 2000; and
(ii) owned and used the vehicle for a continuous period of at least 12 months immediately before it was imported into Australia.
(2)  A personally imported vehicle must be fitted with –
(a) seatbelts that are as effective as seatbelts that meet an Australian Standard or British Standard for seatbelts as in force when this regulation commenced; and
(b) seatbelt anchorages that meet the number and location requirements of second or third edition ADR 5; and
(c) child restraint anchorages that meet the number, location, accessibility, thread size and form requirements of second edition ADR 34 or third edition ADR 5 or 34; and
(d) head restraints that meet the number, location and size requirements of second or third edition ADR 22.
(3)  However, a personally imported vehicle need only meet the requirements of an ADR mentioned in subregulation (2) if the ADR recommends that it should apply, or applies, to a vehicle of the same type.
(4)  A personally imported vehicle need not otherwise comply with an ADR applied by regulation 19(1) or regulation 20(1) .
PART 4 - Adopted Standards

24.   What is an adopted standard

An adopted standard is a standard, except a national standard, that is applied, adopted or incorporated by the Vehicle Standards.

25.   Reference to adopted standards

Unless the contrary intention appears, a reference in a regulation or subregulation to an adopted standard is a reference to the standard as in force when the Vehicle and Traffic (Vehicle Standards) Regulations 2001 commenced.

26.   Exception to compliance with adopted standards

A vehicle need not comply with an adopted standard if –
(a) the standard is replaced by, or is inconsistent with, a later version of the standard; and
(b) the vehicle complies with the later version of the standard.
PART 5 - General Safety Requirements

Note 1
For a vehicle to be operated safely, it needs to be properly designed to minimise the potential for accidents and harm to its occupants and other road users.

Note 2
This Part sets out various requirements covering the driver's view from a vehicle, the driver's control of a vehicle, protection of its occupants and other road users, and other general safety features.
Division 1 - All vehicles

27.   Standard applicable to modification of light vehicle

[Regulation 27 Substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018]
(1)  A person who modifies a light vehicle, other than a street rod vehicle, must ensure that –
(a) the modification complies with Vehicle Standards Bulletin 14 (VSB 14), as amended or substituted from time to time; or
(b) the modification is otherwise acceptable to the Registrar.
(2)  A person who modifies a street rod vehicle must ensure that the modification complies with the National Guidelines for the Construction and Modification of Street Rods in Australia, as amended or substituted from time to time.

28.   Steering

(1)  A light motor vehicle must have a right-hand drive if it is –
(a) less than 30 years old; and
(b) required under a law of this jurisdiction to have a right-hand drive.
(2)  A light motor vehicle has a right-hand drive if the centre of at least one steering control of the vehicle is to the right of, or in line with, the centre of the vehicle.
(3)  A component of the steering system of a light motor vehicle that is essential for effective steering of the vehicle must be built to transmit energy by mechanical means only.
(4)  Failure of a non-mechanical component of the steering system must not prevent effective steering of the light motor vehicle.
(5)  This regulation does not apply to a light motor vehicle if it is built mainly for a purpose other than the transport of goods or people by road.

29.   Turning ability

(1)  A light motor vehicle must be able to turn in a circle not over 25 metres in diameter, measured by the outer edge of the tyre track at ground level.
(2)  The vehicle must be able to comply with subregulation (1) whether it turns to the left or to the right.

30.   Ability to travel backwards and forwards

A light motor vehicle with an unloaded mass over 450 kilograms must be able to be driven both backwards and forwards when the driver is in the normal driving position.

31.   Protrusions

(1)  An object fitted to a light vehicle must be designed, built, fitted to and maintained on the vehicle in a way that minimises the likelihood of injury to a person making contact with the vehicle.
(2)  However, subregulation (1) does not apply to an object fitted to a light vehicle if –
(a) the vehicle was designed before 1965 and the object was part of the design of the vehicle; or
(b) the object was fitted to the vehicle before 1965 in accordance with the law of the place where the object was fitted.

32.   Driver's view and light vehicle controls

A light motor vehicle must be built –
(a) to allow the driver a view of the road and of traffic to the front and sides of the vehicle so the driver can drive the vehicle safely; and
(b) with its controls located so the driver can drive the vehicle safely.

33.   Seating

A seat for a driver or passenger in a light motor vehicle must be securely attached to the vehicle.

34.   Mudguards

(1)  A light vehicle must have a mudguard firmly fitted for each wheel or for adjacent wheels.
(2)  However, subregulation (1) does not apply to a vehicle if –
(a) the construction or use of the vehicle makes the fitting of mudguards unnecessary or impracticable; or
(b) the body or part of the body of the vehicle acts as a mudguard.

Examples for subregulation (2)(a):

Most road-making plant

Some agricultural equipment

(3)  A mudguard may be up to –
(a) 230 millimetres above ground level; or
(b) on a light vehicle built to be used off-road, 300 millimetres above ground level.
(4)  The outside of a rear mudguard, except a mudflap, of a light vehicle that can be seen from the rear of the vehicle must be coloured white or silver if the vehicle –
(a) is at least 2.2 metres wide; and
(b) has a body the vertical measurement of which is under 300 millimetres at the rear, measured from the lowest point of the body above ground level to the highest point; and
(c) [Regulation 34 Subregulation (4) amended by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] is not fitted with rear marking plates, or conspicuity markings, in accordance with regulation 108.
(5)  [Regulation 34 Subregulation (5) substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] For subregulation (4)(a), the width of a vehicle does not include the following devices or systems:
(a) anti-skid devices mounted on wheels;
(b) central tyre inflation systems;
(c) lights, mirrors and reflectors;
(d) signalling devices;
(e) tyre pressure gauges;
(f) permanently affixed webbing assembly-type devices if the width of the vehicle including those devices does not exceed 2.55 metres.

35.   Prevention of dripping oil, &c.

A vehicle, including its fittings, must be built and maintained so as to prevent oil, grease, fuel, brake fluid or hydraulic fluid dripping onto the street surface from any part of the vehicle.

36.   Horns, alarms, &c.

[Regulation 36 Substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018]
(1)  A light motor vehicle must be fitted with at least one horn or other device that can give sufficient audible warning to other road users of the approach or position of the vehicle.
(2)  A light motor vehicle must not be fitted with a device that can make a sound like the sound of a siren, exhaust whistle, compression whistle or repeater horn.
(3)  However, subregulation (2) does not apply to the following devices:
(a) a device fitted to an exempt vehicle;
(b) a device fitted to a vehicle that –
(i) is at least 25 years old; and
(ii) is fitted and modified to be an emergency vehicle or police vehicle; and
(iii) is used for exhibition purposes only or as part of a collection of former emergency vehicles or police vehicles;
(c) a device that is an anti-theft device, if the device cannot be operated while the switch for the ignition of the vehicle is in the 'on' position;
(d) a device that emits a regular, intermittent sound while the vehicle is reversing or in reverse gear if the sound emitted by the device is not louder than is necessary to enable the driver, and persons near the vehicle, to hear the device when it is operating.
(4)  The provisions of the relevant ADR which corresponds to subregulation (2) apply to a vehicle as if those provisions of the ADR did not contain a reference to a bell.

37.   Rear vision mirrors

(1)  A rear vision mirror or mirrors must be fitted to a light motor vehicle as required by this regulation so that a driver of the vehicle can clearly see by reflection the road behind the vehicle and any following or overtaking vehicle.
(2)  At least one rear vision mirror must be fitted to –
(a) a car; and
(b) a motor trike with 2 front wheels; and
(c) a motor bike, or motor trike with one front wheel, built before July 1975.
(3)  At least one rear vision mirror must be fitted to each side of –
(a) a light motor vehicle with a GVM over 3.5 tonnes; and
(b) a motor bike, or motor trike with one front wheel, built after June 1975; and
(c) a light motor vehicle having any side or rear glazing of a luminous transmittance of less than 70%; and
(d) a light bus.
(4)  A light motor vehicle with a GVM not over 3.5 tonnes, except a motor vehicle mentioned in subregulation (2) or (3) , must be fitted with –
(a) at least one rear vision mirror on the right side of the vehicle; and
(b) at least one rear vision mirror on the left side of the vehicle or inside the vehicle.
(5)  [Regulation 37 Subregulation (5) amended by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] A rear vision mirror fitted to a light motor vehicle with a GVM over 3.5 tonnes must not project over 150 millimetres beyond the widest part.
(5A)  [Regulation 37 Subregulation (5A) inserted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] For subregulation (5), the width of a vehicle does not include the following devices or systems:
(a) anti-skid devices mounted on wheels;
(b) central tyre inflation systems;
(c) lights, mirrors and reflectors;
(d) signalling devices;
(e) tyre pressure gauges;
(f) permanently affixed webbing assembly-type devices if the width of the vehicle including those devices does not exceed 2.55 metres.
(6)  [Regulation 37 Subregulation (6) amended by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] However, the rear vision mirror may project up to 230 millimetres beyond the widest part of the light vehicle or light combination if it can fold to project no more than 150 millimetres beyond the widest part as measured in accordance with subregulation (5A).
(7)  A light bus must be fitted with an interior mirror so that a driver of the bus, in the normal driving position, can clearly see by reflection the whole interior of the bus behind that driving position.

38.   Rear vision mirrors: surfaces

(1)  A rear vision mirror required to be fitted to the side of a light motor vehicle with a GVM over 3.5 tonnes must have a reflecting surface of at least 150 square centimetres.
(2)  The reflecting surface of the rear vision mirrors that are required to be fitted to a motor bike or moped must –
(a) each be of the same curvature; and
(b) if convex, be part of a notional sphere with a radius of at least 1.2 metres.

39.   Additional rear vision mirrors

A light motor vehicle may be fitted with additional rear vision mirrors or mirror surfaces that are flat or convex or a combination of flat and convex surfaces.

40.   Automatic transmission

(1)  A light motor vehicle fitted with an automatic transmission must have an engine starter mechanism that cannot operate when the transmission control is in a position to drive the vehicle.
(2)  A light motor vehicle built after 1975 that is fitted with an automatic transmission must have an indicator in the driver's compartment showing the transmission control position.
(3)  Subregulations (1) and (2) do not apply to a light motor vehicle with less than 4 wheels.

41.   Diesel engines

A light motor vehicle propelled by a compression ignition engine (commonly known as a diesel engine) must be fitted with a device preventing the engine from being started accidentally or inadvertently.

42.   Bonnet-securing devices

(1)  A light motor vehicle with a moveable body panel forward of the windscreen that covers an engine or luggage storage or battery compartment must have a device to secure the panel.
(2)  However, if the panel opens from the front in a way that partly or completely obstructs the driver's forward view through the windscreen, the panel must have primary and secondary devices to secure the panel.

43.   Electrical wiring, components, connections and installations

(1)  The wiring of electrical equipment of a light vehicle, except the high tension ignition wiring, must –
(a) be supported at intervals of not over 600 millimetres, unless the vehicle is a pole-type trailer with a pole with an adjustable length, or an extendible trailer; and
(b) be insulated at each of its joints; and
(c) be located where it cannot –
(i) become overheated; or
(ii) contact moving parts; or
(iii) come near enough to the fuel system to be a fire hazard; and
(d) be protected from chafing.
(2)  The electrical components of a light vehicle must be securely mounted.
(3)  The electrical connectors between light motor vehicles and light trailers, for the operation of the vehicle lights required by the Vehicle Standards, must comply with at least one of the following standards:
(a) Australian Standard AS 2513-1982 Electrical Connections for Trailer Vehicles;
(b) International Standards Organisation ISO 1185-1997;
(c) Society of Automotive Engineers SAE J 560-1998;
(d) Australian Standard AS 4735- 2003 Heavy road vehicles - Electrical connectors for articulated vehicles.
(4)  A light trailer must be equipped with an electrical conductor, independent of the trailer coupling, that provides a return path between the electrical circuits of the trailer and towing vehicle.
(5)  Wires carrying electrical current on a bus must be fitted so that any current first passes through a fuse box or circuit-breaker.
(6)  If the battery of the electrical system of a light bus is fitted in the interior of the bus, it must be so protected that fumes or acid cannot come into contact with passengers or goods.

44.   Television receivers and visual display units

(1)  A television receiver or visual display unit must not be installed in a light vehicle so any part of the image on the screen is visible to the driver from the normal driving position.
(2)  However, subregulation (1) does not apply to –
(a) a television receiver or visual display unit that cannot be operated when the light vehicle is moving; or
(b) a driver's aid in any vehicle or destination sign in a bus.

Examples of driver's aids:

Closed-circuit television security cameras

Dispatch systems

Navigational or intelligent highway and vehicle system equipment

Rearview screens

Ticket-issuing machines

Vehicle monitoring devices

(3)  A television receiver, or visual display unit, and its associated equipment in a light vehicle must be securely mounted in a position that –
(a) does not obscure the driver's view of the road; and
(b) does not impede the movement of a person in the vehicle.

45.   Requirement for windscreen to be fitted

A light motor vehicle (other than a motor bike, motor trike or moped) must be fitted with a windscreen if it is manufactured or designed to have a windscreen.

46.   Windscreens and windows

(1)  In this regulation –
approved material means material with the same characteristics as material mentioned in any of the following standards:
(a) Australian Standard AS R1-1965 Safety Glass for Land Transport;
(b) Australian Standard AS R1-1968 Safety Glass for Land Transport;
(c) Australian Standard AS 2080-1977 Safety Glass for Vehicles;
(d) British Standard BS 857:1967 Specification for Safety Glass for Land Transport;
(e) British Standard BS 5282:1975 Specification for Road Vehicle Safety Glass;
(f) British Standard BS AU178:1980 Specification for Road Vehicle Safety Glass;
(g) Japanese Industrial Standard JIS R3211-1979 Safety Glasses for Road Vehicles;
(h) American National Standard ANSI Z26.1-1980 Safety Code for Safety Glazing Materials for Glazing Motor Vehicles Operating on Land Highway;
transparent material does not include any coating added to the windscreen, window or partition after its manufacture.
(2)  Transparent material used in a windscreen, window, or an interior partition, of a light motor vehicle must be of approved material if –
(a) the vehicle was built after June 1953; or
(b) the material was first fitted to the vehicle after June 1953.
(3)  A window on a bus must be –
(a) sound and properly fitted; and
(b) if movable, fitted with a suitable device for opening and closing.
(4)  Unless a bus is adequately ventilated by means of a fan-forced "jet air" or fan-forced airconditioning system, part of the glass in at least half of its window frames must be capable of being opened.
(5)  A bus must have ventilation additional to that provided by its windows.

47.   Window tinting

(1)  Glazing used in a windscreen of a light motor vehicle must have a luminous transmittance of at least 70%.
(2)  Windscreen glazing of a light motor vehicle must not be coated in a way that reduces its luminous transmittance.
(3)  However, subregulations (1) and (2) do not apply to the greater of the following areas of a windscreen:
(a) the area above the highest point of the windscreen that is swept by a windscreen wiper;
(b) the upper 10% of the windscreen.
(4)  Glazing used in an interior partition or window of a light motor vehicle must have a luminous transmittance of at least 70%.
(5)  [Regulation 47 Subregulation (5) substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] Glazing that –
(a) complies with subregulation (4); and
(b) is used in an interior partition or window, other than rear glazing, of a light motor vehicle –
may be coated to achieve a luminous transmittance of at least 35%.
(6)  [Regulation 47 Subregulation (6) substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] If a light motor vehicle is fitted with at least one rear vision mirror on each side of the vehicle that complies with regulation 37(1), the motor vehicle's rear glazing may be coated to achieve a luminous transmittance of at least 20%.
(7)  [Regulation 47 Subregulation (7) substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] If a light motor vehicle complies with each of the following requirements, the motor vehicle's rear glazing may be coated to achieve a luminous transmittance of 0% or more:
(a) the motor vehicle is fitted with at least one rear vision mirror on each side of the vehicle;
(b) the motor vehicle is designed primarily for the carriage of goods;
(c) the motor vehicle has –
(i) at least 4 wheels; or
(ii) at least 3 wheels and a GVM of more than one tonne.
(8)  [Regulation 47 Subregulation (8) substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] The requirements for luminous transmittance in a second edition ADR or third edition ADR, that apply to glazing used in a window of a motor vehicle, do not apply to a window that is coated in accordance with subregulation (5), (6) or (7).
(9)  [Regulation 47 Subregulation (9) inserted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] Glazing that has been coated to reduce its luminous transmittance must not have a reflectance of more than 10%.

48.   Windscreen wipers and washers

(1)  A light motor vehicle with 3 or more wheels that is fitted with a windscreen must be fitted with at least one windscreen wiper unless a driver in a normal driving position can obtain an adequate view of the road ahead of the motor vehicle without looking through the windscreen.
(2)  At least one windscreen wiper fitted to the light motor vehicle must –
(a) be able to remove moisture from the part of the windscreen in front of the driver to allow the driver an adequate view of the road ahead of the motor vehicle when the windscreen is wet; and
(b) be able to be operated from a normal driving position; and
(c) for a motor vehicle built after 1934, continue to operate until the wiper is switched off; and
(d) for a motor vehicle built after 1959 the driving position of which is nearer one side of the vehicle than the other –
(i) be able to remove moisture from the part of the windscreen in front of the driver, and a corresponding part of the windscreen on the other side of the centre of the motor vehicle, to allow the driver an adequate view of the road ahead of the motor vehicle when the windscreen is wet; and
(ii) if the windscreen wipers are operated by engine manifold vacuum, be provided with a vacuum reservoir or pump to maintain the efficient operation of the wiper or wipers while the vehicle is in motion.

49.   Wheels and tyres: size and capacity

The wheels and tyres fitted to an axle of a light vehicle must be of sufficient size and capacity to carry the part of the vehicle's gross mass transmitted to the ground through the axle.

50.   Pneumatic tyres generally

A light vehicle built after 1932 must be fitted with pneumatic tyres.

51.   Pneumatic tyres: carcass construction

(1)  A light vehicle must not have pneumatic tyres of different carcass construction fitted to the same axle, but the tyres may have different cord materials and a different number of plies.
(2)  However, subregulation (1) does not apply to a tyre being used in an emergency as a temporary replacement for a tyre complying with the subregulation.

52.   Pneumatic tyres: size and capacity

The size and capacity of a pneumatic tyre to be fitted to a light vehicle must be decided using a cold inflation pressure that is not more than the pressure recommended by the tyre manufacturer.

Note The maximum permissible tyre inflation pressures are prescribed in the Vehicle and Traffic (Vehicle Operations) Regulations 2014 .

53.   Tyres: defects

A tyre fitted to a light vehicle must be free of any apparent defect that could make the vehicle unsafe.

54.   Tyres: manufacturer's rating

(1)  This regulation applies to a light motor vehicle if it –
(a) has 4 or more wheels; and
(b) was built after 1972.
(2)  However, this regulation does not apply to a tyre if it –
(a) is recommended by the vehicle's builder as suitable for limited use on the vehicle in special circumstances at a speed less than the speed applying to the vehicle under subregulation (3) ; or
(b) is being used in an emergency as a temporary replacement for a tyre complying with this regulation.
(3)  A tyre fitted to a light motor vehicle must, when first manufactured, have been rated by the tyre manufacturer as suitable for road use at the lesser of –
(a) a speed of at least –
(i) for a car with special features for off-road use, 140 kilometres an hour; or
(ii) for another car, 180 kilometres an hour; or
(iii) for another motor vehicle, 120 kilometres an hour; and
(b) the vehicle's top speed.

Example for paragraph (a)(i):

4 wheel drive vehicle.

(4)  This regulation applies to a light motor vehicle instead of the tyre speed category requirements in the relevant ADR.

55.   Retreads

(1)  A tyre that was retreaded before the commencement of the Vehicle and Traffic (Vehicle Standards) Regulations 2001 must not be used on a light vehicle if –
(a) Australian Standard AS 1973-1976 Retreaded Pneumatic Passenger Car and Light Truck Tyre or Australian Standard AS 1973-1985 Retreaded Pneumatic Passenger and Light Truck Tyre applies to the tyre; and
(b) the tyre was retreaded after publication of the Australian Standard; and
(c) the tyre was not retreaded in accordance with Australian Standard AS 1973-1976 Retreaded Pneumatic Passenger Car and Light Truck Tyre, Australian Standard AS 1973-1985 Retreaded Pneumatic Passenger and Light Truck Tyre or Australian Standard AS 1973-1993 Pneumatic Tyres— Passenger Car, Light Truck and Truck/Bus— Retreading and Repair Processes.
(2)  A tyre that was or is retreaded after the commencement of the Vehicle and Traffic (Vehicle Standards) Regulations 2001 must not be used on a light vehicle if –
(a) Australian Standard AS 1973-1993 Pneumatic Tyres— Passenger Car, Light Truck and Truck/Bus— Retreading and Repair Processes applies to the tyre; and
(b) the tyre was not retreaded in accordance with the Australian Standard.

Note The Australian Standards mentioned in this regulation require various markings on retreaded tyres. These may include a speed rating less than the rating originally marked on the tyre.

56.   Tyre tread

(1)  A tyre on a light vehicle must not have cleats or other gripping devices that could damage road surfaces.
(2)  Except at tread wear indicators, a tyre fitted to the light vehicle must have a tread pattern at least 1.5 millimetres deep in a band that runs continuously –
(a) across the tyre width that normally comes into contact with the road; and
(b) around the whole circumference of the tyre.
(3)  A light vehicle must not be fitted with a tyre that has been treated by recutting or regrooving the tread rubber, unless the tyre was –
(a) constructed with an extra thickness of rubber designed for recutting or regrooving; and
(b) labelled to indicate the construction.
(4)  Subregulations (2) and (3) do not apply to a vehicle designed mainly for use in a specialised activity such as agriculture or road construction.

Examples for subregulation (4):

Multi-tyred rollers (self-propelled or towed)

Bitumen-laying machines

Mowing equipment (self-propelled or towed)

Division 2 - Additional requirements for motor bikes

57.   Steering gear and handlebars

(1)  The handlebars on a motor bike must extend at least 250 millimetres, but not over 450 millimetres, on each side of the centre-line of the motor bike.
(2)  In taking a measurement for subregulation (1) , mirrors and lights mounted on the handlebars of the motor bike are disregarded.
(3)  The lowest part of the hand grip on the handlebars must not be higher than 380 millimetres above the attachment point of the handlebars to the motor bike.
(4)  Hand grips on the handlebars must be fitted symmetrically.
(5)  If a motor bike has the head stem as the steering pivot point, the horizontal distance from the midpoint between the head stem bearings to the centre of the front wheel must not be over 550 millimetres.

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58.   Foot rests

A motor bike must be fitted with foot rests for the driver, and for any passenger for whom a seating position is provided.

59.   Chain guards

(1)  If the engine power of a motor bike is transmitted to the rear wheel by a chain, the driver and any passenger must be protected from the front sprocket and at least the upper part of the chain by –
(a) the frame or equipment of the motor bike; or
(b) a chain guard.
(2)  A chain guard must cover the chain to a point –
(a) at least 300 millimetres to the rear of the rearmost foot rest; or
(b) above the centre of the rear drive sprocket.
PART 6 - Light Vehicle Marking

Note
This Part contains requirements for a vehicle that help to identify it and for markings that help to warn other motorists.

60.   Light vehicle and engine identification numbers

(1)  In this regulation –
number includes letter.
(2)  A light motor vehicle must have an individual engine identification number clearly stamped, embossed or otherwise permanently marked on it.
(3)  A light motor vehicle built after 1930 must have the engine identification number on its engine block or the main component of its engine.
(4)  A light vehicle must have an individual vehicle identification number clearly stamped, embossed or otherwise permanently marked on a substantial part of its frame or chassis.
(5)  A vehicle identification number or engine identification number, of a light vehicle, must be located where a person can read it easily without having to use tools to remove a part of the vehicle that would otherwise obstruct the person's view.

61.   White or silver band on certain light vehicles

(1)  This regulation applies to a light vehicle that –
(a) is at least 2.2 metres wide; and
(b) has a body with a vertical measurement under 300 millimetres at the rear, measured from the lowest point of the body above ground level to the highest point; and
(c) [Regulation 61 Subregulation (1) amended by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] is not fitted with rear marking plates, or conspicuity markings, in accordance with regulation 108 .
(2)  [Regulation 61 Subregulation (2) substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] For subregulation (1)(a), the width of a vehicle does not include the following devices or systems:
(a) anti-skid devices mounted on wheels;
(b) central tyre inflation systems;
(c) lights, mirrors and reflectors;
(d) signalling devices;
(e) tyre pressure gauges;
(f) permanently affixed webbing assembly-type devices if the width of the vehicle including those devices does not exceed 2.55 metres.
(3)  The light vehicle must have a white or silver band at least 75 millimetres high across the full width of the rearmost part of the body of the vehicle.
PART 7 - Light Vehicle Configuration

Note 1
This Part sets out various requirements covering the axle configuration on vehicles and combinations of vehicles, so that they can be operated safely with other traffic and without damaging the road and structures on the road.

Note 2
Specific requirements relating to vehicle dimensions and mass may be found in the Vehicle and Traffic (Vehicle Operations) Regulations 2014 .

62.   Axle configuration

(1)  A light motor vehicle must have only –
(a) one axle group, or single axle, towards the front of the vehicle; and
(b) one axle group, or single axle, towards the rear of the vehicle.
(2)  A light trailer must have only –
(a) one axle group or single axle; or
(b) 2 axle groups, 2 single axles, or one axle group and single axle, in the following configuration:
(i) one axle group, or single axle, towards the front of the vehicle, with all the wheels on the axle group or single axle connected to the steering mechanism for that part of the trailer;
(ii) one axle group, or single axle, towards the rear of the vehicle.
(3)  A light semi-trailer that is extendible, or is fitted with sliding axles, must –
(a) have a securing device that –
(i) can securely fix the extendible part or sliding axles to the rest of the vehicle in any position of adjustment provided; and
(ii) is located in a position that can prevent accidental or inadvertent release, if the device is mounted on the chassis of the vehicle; and
(iii) is fitted with a visible or audible warning system to indicate to a person standing beside the vehicle that the device is not engaged; and
(iv) is fitted with a way of preventing loss of air from the air brake supply, if the device uses air from the brake system and fails in a way allowing air to escape; and
(v) is held in the applied position by direct mechanical action without the intervention of an electric, hydraulic or pneumatic device; and
(b) be built so the adjustable parts of the vehicle remain connected if the securing device fails.
PART 8 - Lights and Reflectors

Note 1
This Part deals with how the lights on a vehicle must be fitted and work so that the driver can see the road, pedestrians and other vehicles at night, and can signal to others.

Note 2
Other laws provide for when certain lights must be switched on.

Note 3
In this Part, the description "yellow" is used as a more modern term, instead of the description "amber" which is used in earlier legislation and some ADRs.
Division 1 - General requirements for lights

63.   Certain requirements apply only at night

The requirements of this Part for a light, except a brake or direction indicator light, to be visible over a stated distance apply only at night.

64.   Prevention of glare

A light, except a high-beam headlight, fitted to a light vehicle must be built and adjusted to provide the necessary amount of light, without dazzling the driver of another vehicle approaching, or being approached by, the vehicle.

65.   Pairs of lights

(1)  If lights are required under the Vehicle Standards to be fitted to a light vehicle in pairs –
(a) a light must be fitted on each side of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle; and
(b) the centre of each light in a pair must be the same distance from the longitudinal axis of the vehicle; and
(c) the centre of each light in a pair must be at the same height above ground level; and
(d) each light in a pair must project approximately the same amount of light of the same colour.
(2)  Subregulation (1) applies to a motor bike with an attached sidecar as if the sidecar were not attached.
Division 2 - Headlights

66.   Headlights to be fitted to light vehicles

(1)  A light motor vehicle must be fitted with –
(a) one low-beam headlight if it is a moped, motor bike or motor trike with one front wheel; or
(b) a pair of low-beam headlights if it has 4 or more wheels or is a motor trike, except a moped, with 2 front wheels.
(2)  If a light motor vehicle built after 1934 can travel at over 60 kilometres an hour –
(a) each low-beam headlight mentioned in subregulation (1) must be able to work in the high-beam position; or
(b) the vehicle must be fitted with –
(i) one headlight that can work in the high-beam position if the vehicle is required to have one low-beam headlight; or
(ii) a pair of headlights that can work in the high-beam position.
(3)  A motor bike may be equipped with a headlight modulation system that –
(a) varies the brightness of its high-beam headlight or low-beam headlight, but not both, at a rate of at least 200 and at most 280 flashes per minute; and
(b) is designed to operate only in daylight.
(4)  [Regulation 66 Subregulation (4) substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] Up to 4 additional headlights may be fitted to –
(a) a light motor vehicle with 4 or more wheels; or
(b) a motor bike or motor trike.
(5)  [Regulation 66 Subregulation (5) substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] An additional headlight fitted to a vehicle under subregulation (4) must be fitted so that it faces forward and is symmetrical in relation to the centre-line of the vehicle.

67.   How headlights are to be fitted

(1)  The centres of low-beam headlights fitted as a pair on a light motor vehicle with 4 or more wheels must be at least 600 millimetres apart.
(2)  However, subregulation (1) does not apply to a light motor vehicle built before 1970 if the centres of its low-beam headlights –
(a) were under 600 millimetres apart when the vehicle was built; and
(b) are not nearer than they were when the vehicle was built.
(3)  Each low-beam headlight of a pair on a motor trike, except a moped, with 2 front wheels must not be over 400 millimetres from the nearer side of the vehicle.
(4)  The centre of a low-beam headlight fitted to a light motor vehicle built after June 1953 must be –
(a) at least 500 millimetres above ground level; and
(b) not over 1.4 metres above ground level.

68.   How single headlights are to be fitted

(1)  A motor bike or motor trike with a single headlight fitted must have the light fitted in the centre.
(2)  Subregulation (1) applies to a motor bike with an attached sidecar as if the sidecar were not attached.

69.   

[Regulation 69 Rescinded by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  

70.   Performance of headlights

(1)  When on, a headlight, or additional headlight, fitted to a light motor vehicle must –
(a) show only white light; and
(b) project its main beam of light ahead of the vehicle.
(2)  Headlights must be fitted to a light motor vehicle so their light does not reflect off the vehicle into the driver's eyes.

71.   Effective range of headlights

(1)  This regulation applies to a headlight that is on at night.
(2)  A low-beam headlight must illuminate the road ahead of the light motor vehicle for at least 25 metres.
(3)  A high-beam headlight must illuminate the road ahead of the light motor vehicle for at least 50 metres.
(4)  However, a low-beam headlight fitted to a light motor vehicle built before 1931, or to a moped, need only illuminate the road ahead of the vehicle for 12 metres.

72.   Changing headlights from high-beam to low-beam position

(1)  A light motor vehicle built after 1934 that can travel at over 60 kilometres an hour must be fitted with –
(a) a dipping device enabling the driver in the normal driving position –
(i) to change the headlights from the high-beam position to the low-beam position; or
(ii) simultaneously to switch off a high-beam headlight and switch on a low-beam headlight; and
(b) for a vehicle built after June 1953, a device to indicate to the driver that the headlights are in the high-beam position.
(2)  A headlight fitted to a light motor vehicle not fitted with a dipping device mentioned in subregulation (1)(a) must operate in the low-beam position.
(3)  When a headlight fitted to a light motor vehicle is switched to the low-beam position, any other headlight on the vehicle must operate only in the low-beam position or be off.
Division 3 - Parking lights

73.   Parking lights

(1)  A light motor vehicle built after June 1953 must be fitted with –
(a) a pair of parking lights if it is a motor trike with 2 front wheels, except a moped, or a motor vehicle with 4 or more wheels; or
(b) at least one parking light if it is a motor bike with an attached sidecar, or a motor trike with one front wheel, except a moped.
(2)  A pair of parking lights fitted to a light motor vehicle with 4 or more wheels must be fitted with the centre of each light –
(a) at least 600 millimetres from the centre of the other light; and
(b) not over 510 millimetres from the nearer side of the vehicle.
(3)  However, a pair of parking lights fitted to a light motor vehicle under 1.3 metres wide may be fitted with the centre of each light not under 400 millimetres from the centre of the other light.
(4)  A parking light fitted to a motor trike with 2 front wheels must not be over 400 millimetres from the nearer side of the vehicle.
(5)  A parking light fitted to a motor bike with a sidecar must be fitted not over 150 millimetres from the side of the sidecar furthest from the motor bike.

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(6)  When on, a parking light must –
(a) show a white or yellow light visible 200 metres from the front of the light vehicle; and
(b) not use over 7 watts power.
(7)  A parking light fitted to a light motor vehicle built after 1969 must be wired so the parking light is on when a headlight on the vehicle is on.
(8)  A parking light fitted to a sidecar attached to a motor bike must be wired to operate when a headlight, tail light or parking light on the motor bike is on.
(9)  [Regulation 73 Subregulation (9) substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] For subregulation (3), the width of a vehicle does not include the following devices or systems:
(a) anti-skid devices mounted on wheels;
(b) central tyre inflation systems;
(c) lights, mirrors and reflectors;
(d) signalling devices;
(e) tyre pressure gauges;
(f) permanently affixed webbing assembly-type devices if the width of the vehicle including those devices does not exceed 2.55 metres.
Division 4 - Daytime running lights

74.   Daytime running lights

(1)  A pair of daytime running lights may be fitted to a light motor vehicle.
(2)  A pair of daytime running lights fitted to a light vehicle with 4 or more wheels must be fitted with the centre of each light –
(a) at least 600 millimetres from the centre of the other light; and
(b) not over 510 millimetres from the nearer side of the vehicle.
(3)  However, a pair of daytime running lights fitted to a light motor vehicle under 1.3 metres wide may be fitted with the centre of each light not under 400 millimetres from the centre of the other light.

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(4)  When on, a daytime running light must –
(a) show a white or yellow light visible from the front of the light vehicle; and
(b) not use over 25 watts power.

Note The third edition ADRs only allow white daytime running lights.

(5)  Daytime running lights must be wired so they are off when a headlight, except a headlight being used as a flashing signal, is on.
(6)  [Regulation 74 Subregulation (6) substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] For subregulation (3), the width of a vehicle does not include the following devices or systems:
(a) anti-skid devices mounted on wheels;
(b) central tyre inflation systems;
(c) lights, mirrors and reflectors;
(d) signalling devices;
(e) tyre pressure gauges;
(f) permanently affixed webbing assembly-type devices if the width of the vehicle including those devices does not exceed 2.55 metres.
Division 5 - Tail lights

75.   Tail lights generally

(1)  A light vehicle must have at least one tail light fitted on or towards the rear of the vehicle.
(2)  A motor trike with 2 rear wheels, or a light motor vehicle with 4 or more wheels, built after 1959 must have at least one tail light fitted on or towards each side of the rear of the vehicle.
(3)  A light trailer built after June 1973 must have at least one tail light fitted on or towards each side of the rear of the vehicle.
(4)  The centre of a tail light mentioned in subregulation (1) , (2) or (3) must not be over –
(a) 1.5 metres above ground level; or
(b) if it is not practicable to fit the light lower, 2.1 metres above ground level.
(5)  A light vehicle may have one or more additional tail lights at any height above ground level.

76.   Pattern of fitting tail lights

(1)  If only one tail light is fitted to a light vehicle, it must be fitted in the centre or to the right of the centre of the vehicle's rear.
(2)  Subregulation (1) applies to a motor bike with an attached sidecar as if the sidecar were not attached.
(3)  If 2 or more tail lights are fitted to a light vehicle, at least 2 must be fitted as a pair.
(4)  Tail lights fitted in accordance with this Division may also serve as rear clearance lights if they are fitted to a light vehicle in accordance with regulation 82(3) .

77.   Performance of tail lights

(1)  When on, a tail light of a light vehicle must –
(a) show a red light visible 200 metres from the rear of the vehicle; and
(b) not use over 7 watts power.
(2)  A tail light fitted to a street rod vehicle may incorporate a blue lens not over 20 millimetres in diameter.

78.   Wiring of tail lights

A tail light of a light motor vehicle must be wired to come on, and stay on, when a parking light or headlight on the vehicle is on, unless an external switch is fitted to operate the tail light.
Division 6 - Number plate lights

79.   Number plate lights

(1)  At least one number plate light must be fitted to the rear of a light vehicle.
(2)  When on, the number plate light or lights must illuminate a number plate on the rear of the light vehicle with white light, so the characters on the number plate can be read at night 20 metres from the rear of the vehicle.
(3)  A number plate light –
(a) may be combined with another light; and
(b) must not project white light to the rear of the light vehicle except by reflection; and
(c) must not obscure the characters on the number plate; and
(d) must be wired to come on, and stay on, when a parking light, headlight or tail light on the light vehicle is on.
Division 7 - Clearance lights

80.   Front clearance lights

(1)  Front clearance lights may only be fitted to a light vehicle that is at least 1.8 metres wide.
(2)  A pair of front clearance lights must be fitted to a light motor vehicle that is at least 2.2 metres wide, or a light prime mover.
(3)  The centre of a front clearance light must be –
(a) not over 400 millimetres from the nearer side of the light vehicle; and
(b) if the light vehicle was built after June 1953 –
(i) at least 750 millimetres higher than the centre of any low-beam headlight fitted to the vehicle; or
(ii) not lower than the top of the windscreen.
(4)  However, a front clearance light may be mounted on an external rear vision mirror or a mirror support if, when the mirror is correctly adjusted, no part of the lens of the clearance light is visible to a person in the normal driving position.
(5)  When on, a front clearance light must –
(a) show a yellow or white light visible 200 metres from the front of the light vehicle; and
(b) not use over 7 watts power.

81.   External cabin lights

(1)  A light motor vehicle fitted with front clearance lights may also have additional forward-facing lights on or above the roof of its cabin.
(2)  The additional forward-facing lights must be spaced evenly between the front clearance lights, with their centres at least 120 millimetres apart.
(3)  When on, an additional forward-facing light must –
(a) show a yellow or white light; and
(b) not use over 7 watts power.

82.   Rear clearance lights

(1)  Rear clearance lights may only be fitted to a light vehicle that is at least 1.8 metres wide.
(2)  A pair of rear clearance lights must be fitted to the rear of a light vehicle that is at least 2.2 metres wide.
(3)  The centre of a rear clearance light must be –
(a) not over 400 millimetres from the nearer side of the light vehicle; and
(b) if practicable, at least 600 millimetres above ground level.
(4)  When on, a rear clearance light must –
(a) show a red light visible 200 metres from the rear of the light vehicle; and
(b) not use over 7 watts power.
Division 8 - Side marker lights

83.   Light vehicles needing side marker lights

(1)  A pair of side marker lights must be fitted towards the rear of the sides of a light motor vehicle that is over 7.5 metres long and at least 2.2 metres wide.
(2)  A pole-type trailer, and a light motor vehicle built to tow a pole-type trailer, with at least one cross-bar or bolster must have a side marker light fitted to each side of the cross-bar or bolster.
(3)  A pole-type trailer with 2 or more cross-bars or bolsters may also have a side marker light fitted to each side of the front cross-bar or bolster.
(4)  At least 2 side marker lights must be fitted to each side of –
(a) a light trailer, except a pole-type trailer, that is at least 2.2 metres wide and not over 7.5 metres long; and
(b) a light semi-trailer that is not over 7.5 metres long.
(5)  At least 3 side marker lights must be fitted to each side of –
(a) a light trailer, except a pole-type trailer, that is at least 2.2 metres wide and over 7.5 metres long; and
(b) a light semi-trailer that is over 7.5 metres long.
(6)  [Regulation 83 Subregulation (6) substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] For subregulations (1), (4) and (5), the width of a vehicle does not include all of the following devices or systems:
(a) anti-skid devices mounted on wheels;
(b) central tyre inflation systems;
(c) lights, mirrors and reflectors;
(d) signalling devices;
(e) tyre pressure gauges;
(f) permanently affixed webbing assembly-type devices if the width of the vehicle including those devices does not exceed 2.55 metres.

84.   Location of side marker lights

(1)  The centre of a side marker light must not be over 150 millimetres from the nearer side of the light vehicle.
(2)  A front side marker light fitted to a light motor vehicle must be towards the front of the side of the vehicle with no part of the lens visible to the driver.
(3)  The centre of a front side marker light fitted to a light trailer must be –
(a) within 300 millimetres of the front of the side of the trailer; or
(b) if the construction of the trailer makes it impracticable to comply with paragraph (a) , as near as practicable to the front of the trailer.
(4)  The centre of a rear side marker light fitted to a light vehicle must be –
(a) within 300 millimetres of the rear of the side of the vehicle; or
(b) if the construction of the vehicle makes it impracticable to comply with paragraph (a) , as near as practicable to the rear of the vehicle.
(5)  Side marker lights fitted to a light vehicle must, as far as practicable, be evenly spaced along the side of the vehicle.
(6)  Subregulations (2) , (3) , (4) and (5) do not apply to side marker lights fitted to a cross-bar or bolster of a pole-type trailer.
(7)  Only the side marker lights nearest to the rear need be fitted if complying with subregulations (3) and (4) would result in the front and rear side marker lights being less than 2.5 metres apart.
(8)  A side marker light fitted to a light vehicle must be fitted so –
(a) its centre is not over –
(i) 1.5 metres above ground level; or
(ii) if it is not practicable to fit it lower, 2.1 metres above ground level; and
(b) its centre is at least 600 millimetres above ground level; and
(c) it is, as far as practicable, in a row of side marker lights along the side of the vehicle.
(9)  Subregulation (8)(a) does not apply to a side marker light that is not required to be fitted to the light vehicle by regulation 83 .

85.   Performance of side marker lights fitted to light vehicles

(1)  When on, a side marker light fitted to a light vehicle must –
(a) show a light visible 200 metres from the vehicle; and
(b) not use over 7 watts power.
(2)  When on, a side marker light fitted to a light vehicle must show –
(a) to the front of the vehicle, a yellow light; and
(b) to the rear of the vehicle –
(i) if the light also operates as a rear light or reflector, a red light; and
(ii) in any other case, a red or yellow light.
(3)  However, if a pole-type trailer with 2 or more cross-bars or bolsters has the side marker lights permitted by regulation 84(3)  –
(a) the side marker lights fitted to the front cross-bar or bolster may comply with subregulation (2)(a) only; and
(b) the side marker lights fitted to the back cross-bar or bolster may comply with subregulation (2)(b) only.

86.   Side marker lights and rear clearance lights

The side marker light nearest to the rear of a light vehicle may also be a rear clearance light for regulation 82 .
Division 9 - Brake lights

87.   Fitting brake lights

(1)  A brake light must be fitted to the rear of a light vehicle built after 1934.
(2)  A pair of brake lights must be fitted to the rear of –
(a) a light motor vehicle built after 1959 that has 4 or more wheels; and
(b) a motor trike built after 1959 that has 2 rear wheels; and
(c) a light trailer built after June 1973.
(3)  The centre of a brake light must be –
(a) at least 350 millimetres above ground level; and
(b) not over –
(i) 1.5 metres above ground level; or
(ii) if it is not practicable to fit the light lower, 2.1 metres above ground level.
(4)  A light vehicle may be fitted with one or more additional brake lights.
(5)  The centre of an additional brake light must be at least 350 millimetres above ground level.
(6)  If only one brake light is fitted to a light vehicle, it must be fitted in the centre or to the right of the centre of the vehicle's rear.
(7)  Subregulation (6) applies to a motor bike with an attached sidecar as if the sidecar were not attached.

graphic image

(8)  [Regulation 87 Subregulation (8) inserted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] For this regulation, a light is taken to be a brake light if the light –
(a) is fitted to a vehicle that was built before 1 January 1973; and
(b) functions as a brake light and a direction indicator light.

88.   Performance and operation of brake lights

(1)  When on, a brake light must show a red light visible 30 metres from the rear of the light vehicle.
(2)  A brake light fitted to a street rod vehicle may incorporate a blue lens not over 20 millimetres in diameter.
(3)  A brake light fitted to a light motor vehicle must come on, if it is not already on, when –
(a) for a vehicle with 4 or more wheels or built after 1974, a service brake is applied; or
(b) for another vehicle, the rear wheel brake is applied.
(4)  Subregulation (3) does not apply if the controls in the vehicle that start the engine are in a position that makes it impossible for the engine to operate.
(5)  A brake light on a light trailer must come on when –
(a) the brake light of the towing vehicle comes on; or
(b) a brake control on the towing vehicle, which independently activates the service brake on the trailer, is operated.
(6)  A brake light may be operated by an engine brake, retarder or similar device if the device does not interfere with the proper operation of the brake light.
Division 10 - Reversing lights

89.   Reversing lights

(1)  One or more reversing lights may be fitted to the rear of a light vehicle and on each side towards the rear of the light vehicle.
(2)  A reversing light must have its centre not over 1.2 metres above ground level.
(3)  When on, a reversing light must show a white or yellow light to the rear or to the side and rear of the light vehicle.

Note Third edition ADRs only allow white reversing lights.

(4)  A reversing light fitted to a light motor vehicle must be wired so that it operates only when the vehicle is reversing or in reverse gear.
(5)  A reversing light fitted to a light trailer must be wired so that it operates only when a motor vehicle towing the trailer is reversing or in reverse gear.
(6)  A yellow reversing light may also operate as a direction indicator light.
Division 11 - Direction indicator lights

90.   Direction indicator lights on light motor vehicles

(1)  A light motor vehicle with 4 or more wheels that was built after August 1966 must have –
(a) a pair of direction indicator lights fitted on, or towards, its front that face forwards; and
(b) a pair of direction indicator lights fitted on, or towards, its rear that face backwards.
(2)  A light motor vehicle with less than 4 wheels that was built after June 1975 must have –
(a) a pair of direction indicator lights fitted on, or towards, its front that face forwards; and
(b) a pair of direction indicator lights fitted on, or towards, its rear that face backwards.
(3)  A light motor vehicle that is not required to have direction indicator lights may have –
(a) one or more pairs of direction indicator lights that are visible from both the front and rear of the vehicle; or
(b) both –
(i) a pair of direction indicator lights fitted on, or towards, its front that face forwards; and
(ii) a pair of direction indicator lights fitted on, or towards, its rear that face backwards.

91.   Direction indicator lights on light trailers

(1)  A light trailer built after June 1973 must have a pair of direction indicator lights fitted on, or towards, its rear that face backwards.
(2)  A light trailer that is not required to have direction indicator lights may have one or more pairs of direction indicator lights fitted on, or towards, its rear that face backwards.

92.   Location of direction indicator lights

(1)  A pair of direction indicator lights fitted to a light vehicle must have the centre of each light at least –
(a) for a motor bike or the single wheel end of a motor trike, 300 millimetres from the centre of the other light; and
(b) for lights fitted at the 2 wheel end of a motor trike, 600 millimetres from the centre of the other light, unless the centre of each direction indicator light is not over 400 millimetres from the nearer side of the vehicle; and
(c) for another vehicle with a width of not over 1.3 metres, 400 millimetres from the centre of the other light; and
(d) for another vehicle with a width of over 1.3 metres, 600 millimetres from the centre of the other light.
(2)  The centre of each direction indicator light must be at least 350 millimetres above ground level.
(3)  The centre of each light in a pair of direction indicator lights required to be fitted to a light vehicle must not be over –
(a) 1.5 metres above ground level; or
(b) if it is not practicable for the light to be fitted lower, 2.1 metres above ground level.
(4)  [Regulation 92 Subregulation (4) substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] For subregulation (1), the width of a vehicle does not include the following devices or systems:
(a) anti-skid devices mounted on wheels;
(b) central tyre inflation systems;
(c) lights, mirrors and reflectors;
(d) signalling devices;
(e) tyre pressure gauges;
(f) permanently affixed webbing assembly-type devices if the width of the vehicle including those devices does not exceed 2.55 metres.

93.   Operation and visibility of direction indicator lights

(1)  A direction indicator light fitted to a light motor vehicle must –
(a) when operating, display regular flashes of light at a rate of not over 120, and –
(i) for a motor vehicle with 4 or more wheels, at least 60, flashes per minute; and
(ii) for another motor vehicle, at least 45, flashes per minute; and
(b) be able to be operated by a person in the normal driving position; and
(c) be wired to an audible or visible device in the vehicle that tells the driver that the direction indicator light is operating; and
(d) flash at the same time and rate as any other direction indicator lights fitted on the same side of the vehicle.
(2)  A direction indicator light fitted to a side of a light trailer must, when operating, flash at the same time and rate as the direction indicator light or lights fitted to the same side of the motor vehicle towing the trailer.
(3)  The flashes of light displayed by a direction indicator light must be –
(a) if the light faces forwards, white or yellow; and
(b) if the light faces backwards –
(i) yellow; or
(ii) for a light vehicle built before July 1973, yellow or red; and
(c) if the light faces out from the side of the light vehicle –
(i) white or yellow towards the front and side; and
(ii) for a vehicle built before July 1973, yellow or red towards the rear and side; and
(iii) for a vehicle built after June 1973, yellow towards the rear and side.

Note The ADRs only allow yellow direction indicator lights.

(4)  If a light motor vehicle's direction indicator lights display only yellow light, the vehicle may be equipped to allow the lights to operate simultaneously on both sides of the vehicle, if a visible or audible signal tells the driver when the lights are operating simultaneously.
(5)  When on, a direction indicator light must be visible 30 metres from –
(a) if the light faces forwards, the front of the light vehicle; or
(b) if the light faces backwards, the rear of the light vehicle; or
(c) if the light faces out from the side of the light vehicle, that side of the vehicle.
(6)  When on, each direction indicator light in at least one pair of lights fitted on or towards the front of a light prime mover, or a light motor vehicle over 7.5 metres long, must be visible at a point –
(a) 1.5 metres at right angles from the side of the vehicle where the light is fitted; and
(b) in line with the rear of the vehicle.
Division 12 - Fog lights

94.   Front fog lights

(1)  A pair of front fog lights may be fitted to a light motor vehicle with 4 or more wheels.
(2)  A pair of front fog lights, or a single front fog light, may be fitted to a motor bike or motor trike.
(3)  A pair of front fog lights fitted to a light motor vehicle with 4 or more wheels must have the centre of each light not over 400 millimetres from the nearer side of the vehicle unless the centres of the lights are at least 600 millimetres apart.
(4)  If the top of the front fog light is higher than the top of any low-beam headlight on the light vehicle, the centre of the fog light must not be higher than the centre of the low-beam headlight.
(5)  A front fog light must –
(a) when on –
(i) project white or yellow light in front of the light vehicle; and
(ii) be a low-beam light; and
(b) be able to be operated independently of any headlight; and
(c) be fitted so the light from it does not reflect off the light vehicle into the driver's eyes.

95.   Rear fog lights

(1)  A light vehicle may have fitted to its rear –
(a) a pair of rear fog lights; or
(b) one rear fog light fitted on, or to the right, of the centre of the vehicle.
(2)  Subregulation (1)(b) applies to a motor bike with an attached sidecar as if the sidecar were not attached.
(3)  A rear fog light must –
(a) have its centre –
(i) not over 1.5 metres above ground level; and
(ii) at least 100 millimetres from the centre of a brake light; and
(b) when on, project red light behind the light vehicle; and
(c) not use over 27 watts power; and
(d) be wired to a visible device in the light vehicle that tells the driver that the rear fog light is operating.
Division 13 - Interior lights

96.   Interior lights

(1)  A light vehicle may be fitted with interior lights that illuminate any interior part of the vehicle.
(2)  A light bus must be fitted with interior lights for the convenience of the passengers.
Division 14 - Reflectors generally

97.   General requirements for reflectors

(1)  A reflector fitted to a light vehicle must show a red, yellow or white reflection of light when light is projected directly onto the reflector at night by a low-beam headlight that –
(a) is 45 metres from the reflector; and
(b) complies with the Vehicle Standards.
(2)  The reflection must be clearly visible from the position of the headlight.
Division 15 - Rear reflectors

98.   Rear reflectors

(1)  A light motor vehicle with 4 or more wheels, and a light trailer, must have a rear-facing red reflector towards each side of its rear.
(2)  A motor bike, a sidecar attached to a motor bike, and a motor trike, must have a rear-facing red reflector.
(3)  The centre of each reflector must be –
(a) at the same height above ground level; and
(b) not over 1.5 metres above ground level.
(4)  However, subregulation (3) does not apply to a reflector fitted to a sidecar attached to a motor bike.
(5)  A reflector fitted to a light motor vehicle with 4 or more wheels, or a light trailer, must not be over 400 millimetres from the nearer side of the vehicle.
(6)  A light vehicle fitted with rear-facing red reflectors in accordance with subregulation (1) or (2) may be fitted with additional red reflectors at any height above ground level or at any distance from the side of the vehicle.
Division 16 - Side reflectors

99.   Compulsory side reflectors on pole-type trailers

(1)  Yellow or red side-facing reflectors must be fitted to the pole of a pole-type trailer so –
(a) one reflector is fitted to the middle third of the left and right faces of the pole; and
(b) the front reflector is not over 3 metres from the front of the trailer; and
(c) the other reflectors are not over 3 metres apart.
(2)  Additional side-facing reflectors may be fitted to a pole-type trailer in accordance with regulation 100 .

100.   Optional side reflectors

(1)  A light vehicle may be fitted with side-facing reflectors.
(2)  A side-facing reflector –
(a) towards the front of the light vehicle must be yellow or white; and
(b) towards the rear of the light vehicle must be yellow or red; and
(c) on the central part of the light vehicle must be yellow.
Division 17 - Front reflectors

101.   Compulsory front reflectors on light trailers

(1)  A front-facing white or yellow reflector must be fitted towards each side of the front of –
(a) a light semi-trailer, except a pole-type trailer; and
(b) the front cross-bar or bolster of a pole-type trailer; and
(c) a light trailer that is at least 2.2 metres wide.
(2)  Each reflector must have its centre –
(a) at the same height above ground level; and
(b) not over 1.5 metres above ground level; and
(c) not over 400 millimetres from the nearer side of the light vehicle.
(3)  Additional front-facing reflectors may be fitted to a trailer mentioned in subregulation (1) in accordance with regulation 102 .

102.   Optional front reflectors

(1)  A light motor vehicle with 4 or more wheels, or a light trailer, may have one or more front-facing white or yellow reflectors fitted towards each side of its front.
(2)  A light motor vehicle with less than 4 wheels may have one or more front-facing white or yellow reflectors.
(3)  The centre of at least one reflector on each side of the front of the light vehicle must be –
(a) at the same height above ground level as the centre of the other reflector; and
(b) the same distance from the longitudinal axis of the vehicle as the centre of the other reflector; and
(c) at least –
(i) for a vehicle with a width under 1.3 metres, 400 millimetres from the centre of the other reflector; and
(ii) for another vehicle, 600 millimetres from the centre of the other reflector.
(4)  [Regulation 102 Subregulation (4) substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] For subregulation (3)(c), the width of a vehicle does not include the following devices or systems:
(a) anti-skid devices mounted on wheels;
(b) central tyre inflation systems;
(c) lights, mirrors and reflectors;
(d) signalling devices;
(e) tyre pressure gauges;
(f) permanently affixed webbing assembly-type devices if the width of the vehicle including those devices does not exceed 2.55 metres.
Division 18 - Warning lights and warning signs on buses carrying schoolchildren

103.   Requirement for warning lights and signs

Two warning lights and a warning sign must be fitted to the front and rear of a bus used for carrying schoolchildren unless the bus used for carrying schoolchildren is –
(a) operating wholly within an urban area specified in Schedule 1 ; or
(b) carrying schoolchildren on a school charter or school excursion; or
(c) operating a regular passenger service, within the meaning of the Passenger Transport Services Act 2011 , that is not provided primarily for the purpose of transporting children to or from school.

104.   Fitting of warning lights and warning signs

(1)  This regulation applies if a bus has been fitted with warning lights and a warning sign as required under regulation 103 .
(2)  The warning lights must be fitted –
(a) [Regulation 104 Subregulation (2) amended by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] so that –
(i) a light is fitted on each side of the warning sign and each such light is the same distance from the centre of the warning sign; or
(ii) both lights are fitted above, or below, the warning sign and the centre point of an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the 2 lights is within 50 millimetres of the vertical axis of the warning sign; and
(b) [Regulation 104 Subregulation (2) amended by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] with the edge of the warning sign –
(i) not more than 100 millimetres from the nearest point on the lens of the warning lights; or
(ii) if that is not practicable due to the design of the bus, not more than 300 millimetres from the nearest point on the lens of the warning lights; and
(c) with the distance between the warning lights at least 300 millimetres at the nearest point; and
(d) so no part of the bus obstructs the light displayed –
(i) 30° to the left and right of the centre of each light; and
(ii) 10° above and below the centre of each light.
(3)  The warning lights may be on the warning sign if the words or image on the sign are not obscured.
(4)  Warning lights fitted on same end of the bus must be fitted at the same height and as high as practicable.
(5)  If the centres of the warning lights are less than 1.8 metres above ground level, no part of the warning lights or warning sign may be on the left of the bus.
(6)  This regulation applies to a bus despite any requirement of a third edition ADR.
(7)  Subregulation (2)(b) does not apply if the warning lights fitted to the front of the bus are mounted higher than 1.8 metres above the ground level.

105.   Operation and performance of warning lights

(1)  This regulation applies if a bus has been fitted with warning lights as required under regulation 103 .
(2)  When operating, a warning light must display regular flashes of yellow light at a rate of at least 90, and not over 180, flashes per minute.
(3)  The warning lights at the same end of the bus must flash alternately.
(4)  Unless the driver has turned the warning lights off, they must operate automatically when a door on the bus opens and for at least 10, and not over 20, seconds after all the doors on the bus have closed.
(5)  The bus must have a visible or audible signal that tells the driver when the warning lights are operating.
(6)  The bus must be fitted with a switch that allows the driver to turn the warning lights off.
(7)  A warning light must have –
(a) an effective lit lens area of at least 60 square centimetres; and
(b) a luminous intensity, in candela, of at least the values mentioned in the following table when measured at the angles mentioned in the table:

Vertical angle from centre of light

Horizontal angle from centre of light

 

-30o

-20o

-10o

-5o

0o

5o

10o

20o

30o

10o

   

50

80

50

   

5o

 

180

320

350

450

350

320

180

 

0o

75

450

1000

1250

1500

1250

1000

450

75

-5o

40

270

450

570

600

570

450

270

40

-10o

   

75

75

75

   
(8)  For subregulation (7)(b) , the luminous intensity of a light is to be measured in accordance with the test method mentioned in third edition ADR 6.

106.   Specifications for warning signs

(1)  This regulation applies if a bus has been fitted with a warning sign for the purposes of regulation 103 .
(2)  A warning sign on the front of a bus must display –
(a) an image of the 40km/h speed-limit sign as specified in Australian Standard AS 1743 Road Signs — Specifications (image R4-1(40)); or
(b) [Regulation 106 Subregulation (2) amended by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] the word or words "SCHOOL" or "SCHOOL BUS" in capital letters at least 100 millimetres high; or
(c) [Regulation 106 Subregulation (2) amended by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] if the warning sign is an electronic sign fitted on the front of the bus that is also used to display the location to which the bus is travelling, the word or words "SCHOOL" or "SCHOOL BUS" in capital letters at least 100 millimetres high while the warning lights fitted to the bus are flashing as required under regulation 105.
(3)  A warning sign on the rear of a bus must display –
(a) an image of the 40km/h speed-limit sign as specified in Australian Standard AS 1743 Road Signs — Specifications (image R4-1(40)); and
(b) the words "WHEN LIGHTS FLASH".
(4)  The part of the warning sign referred to in subregulation (2)(a) and the part of the warning sign referred to in subregulation (3)(a) must –
(a) [Regulation 106 Subregulation (4) amended by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] be square or rectangular; and
(b) be of the dimensional proportions specified in Australian Standard AS 1743 Road Signs — Specifications (image R4-1(40)) with the red circle having a diameter of at least –
(i) 200 millimetres, if the sign is on the front of the bus; or
(ii) 440 millimetres, if the sign is on the rear of the bus; and
(c) be coated with retro-reflective material of class 1 or 2 that meets Australian Standard AS 1906 Retro-reflective Materials and Devices for Road Traffic Control Purposes.
(5)  The part of the warning sign referred to in subregulation (3)(b) must –
(a) be written in 60 millimetre-high black lettering, using series D characters as specified in Australian Standard AS 1744-1975 Standard Alphabets for Road Signs, on a white background; and
(b) for the words "WHEN LIGHTS", use the maximum even space possible between the letters of each word over a distance of 450 millimetres with a minimum separation between the words of 60 millimetres; and
(c) for the word "FLASH", use the maximum even space possible between the letters over a distance of 450 millimetres; and
(d) comprise either –
(i) two separate signs with the words "WHEN LIGHTS" displayed on one sign 450 millimetres long and 70 millimetres high and the word "FLASH" displayed on another sign of the same size; or
(ii) one sign 900 millimetres long and 70 millimetres high.
(5A)  [Regulation 106 Subregulation (5A) inserted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] Subregulation (5)(b), (c) and (d) do not apply in respect of a warning sign fitted to a bus if –
(a) the bus is fitted with a warning sign that –
(i) displays the words "WHEN LIGHTS FLASH", using the maximum even spacing possible between the letters over a distance of 300 millimetres; and
(ii) is a single sign that is a minimum of 300 millimetres wide; and
(iii) is no less than 210 millimetres, and no more than 440 millimetres, high; and
(iv) displays each word on a separate line where each word is centred horizontally on the line; or
(b) the bus has a GVM that does not exceed 6 000 kilograms and is fitted with a warning sign that is made up of 3 separate signs –
(i) with each sign being at least 300 millimetres wide and 70 millimetres high; and
(ii) that display, when viewed together, the words "WHEN LIGHTS FLASH", using the maximum even spacing possible between the letters over a distance of 300 millimetres; and
(iii) that are aligned horizontally; and
(iv) that are vertically stacked without a space between each sign so as to read "WHEN LIGHTS FLASH".
(6)  The part of the warning sign referred to in subregulation (3)(b) must be placed –
(a) if any of the warning lights on the rear of the bus is mounted below the horizontal centreline of the bus, immediately above the 40km/h speed-limit sign; or
(b) if the part of the warning sign comprises 2 signs in accordance with subregulation (5)(d)(i) , one on either side of the 40km/h speed-limit sign, aligned horizontally as close as possible with the top or bottom perimeter of the 40km/h speed-limit sign; or
(c) [Regulation 106 Subregulation (6) amended by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] if the bus has a GVM not exceeding 6 000 kilograms and the part of the warning sign comprises 2 signs in accordance with subregulation (5)(d)(i) , so that both signs are fitted immediately above, below or to one side of the 40km/h speed-limit sign; or
(d) [Regulation 106 Subregulation (6) amended by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] if the part of the warning sign complies with subregulation (5)(d)(ii) , immediately above or below the 40km/h speed-limit sign; or
(e) [Regulation 106 Subregulation (6) amended by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] if the part of the warning sign complies with subregulation (5A) , immediately to one side of the 40km/h speed-limit sign.
(7)  [Regulation 106 Subregulation (7) inserted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] If, due to the design of the bus, the part of the warning sign referred to in subregulation (3)(b) is unable to be fitted within the immediate proximity of the 40km/h speed-limit sign as required in subregulation (6)(a) , (c), (d) or (e) , that part of the warning sign is to be fitted within 150 millimetres of the 40km/h speed-limit sign in the location required in the relevant paragraph.
(8)  [Regulation 106 Subregulation (8) inserted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] Any separate signs that make up the warning sign referred to in subregulation (3)(b) must be placed so as to read "WHEN LIGHTS FLASH".
Division 19 - Other lights, reflectors, rear marking plates or signals

107.   Other lights and reflectors

(1)  In this regulation –
emergency vehicle means –
(a) an ambulance; or
(b) a vehicle built or permanently modified for firefighting purposes; or
(c) a vehicle used by an electricity authority for carrying out emergency repairs to power lines;
[Regulation 107 Subregulation (1) amended by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018]
special-use vehicle means –
(a) a light vehicle built, fitted or used in hazardous situations on a public street; or
(b) a light vehicle or light combination that, because of its dimensions, is permitted to be driven or used on a public street only in accordance with a permit issued under the Vehicle and Traffic (Vehicle Operations) Regulations 2014 ; or
(c) a light vehicle built or fitted to accompany a vehicle or combination mentioned in paragraph (b); or
(d) a bus fitted with a sign telling road users that the bus carries children; or
(e) a light vehicle built, fitted or used as an escort for, or in support of the competitors in, a cycling or foot race or other sporting event making use of public streets.

Examples for paragraph (a):

Tow trucks and vehicle breakdown service vehicles

Kerbside garbage and recycling collection vehicles

Vehicles used to accompany livestock on a public street

Vehicles used in road construction

(2)  A light vehicle may be fitted with a light or reflector not mentioned in the Vehicle Standards if –
(a) another law of this jurisdiction so allows; or
(b) an ADR so allows and the light or reflector is fitted in accordance with that ADR.
(3)  However, except as provided by subregulation (4) or an exemption issued under the Vehicle and Traffic (Vehicle Operations) Regulations 2014 , a light vehicle must not be fitted with –
(a) a light that flashes; or
(b) a light or reflector that –
(i) shows a light other than a red, yellow or white light; or
(ii) shows a red light to the front; or
(iii) shows a white light to the rear; or
(iv) is shaped or located in a way that reduces the effectiveness of a light or reflector that is required to be fitted to the vehicle under the Vehicle Standards.
(4)  Despite any requirement of a third edition ADR –
(a) an exempt vehicle may be fitted with one or more flashing lights of any colour and one or more reflectors of any colour; and
(b) an emergency vehicle may be fitted with one or more flashing red or white lights; and
(c) a special-use vehicle may be fitted with one or more flashing yellow lights.

108.   Rear marking plates and conspicuity markings

[Regulation 108 Substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] Rear marking plates or conspicuity markings may be fitted to –
(a) a light motor vehicle; or
(b) a light trailer.

Note: See also VSB 12 for requirements about 'Do not overtake turning vehicle' signs that may apply to a vehicle fitted with conspicuity markings.

109.   Signalling devices

(1)  This regulation applies to a light motor vehicle if –
(a) it is not fitted with a brake light or direction indicator light mentioned in Division 9 or 11 ; and
(b) the construction of the vehicle would otherwise prevent the driver from hand signalling an intention –
(i) to turn or move the vehicle to the right; or
(ii) to stop or suddenly reduce the speed of the vehicle.
(2)  The light motor vehicle must be fitted with a mechanical signalling device or a pair of turn signals.

110.   Mechanical signalling devices

(1)  A mechanical signalling device must –
(a) be fitted to the right side of the light vehicle; and
(b) be able to be operated by the driver from a normal driving position; and
(c) consist of a white or yellow representation of an open human hand at least 150 millimetres long; and
(d) be constructed so that the driver of the light vehicle can keep the device –
(i) in a neutral position so it is unlikely that the driver of another vehicle or anyone else would regard it as a signal; and
(ii) in a horizontal position with the palm of the hand facing forwards and the fingers pointing out at a right angle to the vehicle to signal an intention to turn or move right; and
(iii) with the palm of the hand facing forwards and the fingers pointing upwards to signal an intention to stop or reduce speed suddenly.
(2)  When the mechanical signalling device is in a position mentioned in subregulation (1)(d)(ii) or (iii) , the complete hand must be clearly visible from both the front and the rear of the light vehicle, at a distance of 30 metres.

111.   Turn signals

A turn signal must –
(a) consist of a steady or flashing illuminated yellow sign at least 150 millimetres long and 25 millimetres wide that –
(i) when in operation, is kept horizontal; and
(ii) when not in operation, is kept in a position so it is unlikely that the driver of another vehicle or anyone else would regard it as a signal; and
(b) be fitted to the side of the light motor vehicle at least 500 millimetres and not over 2.1 metres above ground level, in a position so the driver of the vehicle, from the normal driving position, can see whether the signal is in operation; and
(c) be able to be operated by the driver from the normal driving position; and
(d) when in operation, be visible from both the front and rear of the light motor vehicle at a distance of 30 metres.
Division 20 - Light vehicles not required to have lights or reflectors

112.   Certain vehicles used in daylight

This Part does not apply to –
(a) a light vehicle built before 1931 that is used only in daylight; or
(b) a light vehicle that is –
(i) designed mainly for use in a specialised activity such as agriculture or road construction; and
(ii) built on a chassis of a type not normally used for building trucks; and
(iii) used only in daylight.

Examples for paragraph (b):

Fork-lifts, tractors, graders and harvesters

Towed equipment such as balers, brooms, mowers, ploughs, rakes and road-rollers

Note The provisions of the Road Rules 1999 relating to driver obligations such as lighting and signalling continue to apply to a vehicle even if Part 8 does not apply to it. If, for example, a tractor driver is unable to give a hand signal of an intention to turn because the tractor is towing a grain trailer that obscures the view of following motorists, the grain trailer must be fitted with direction indicator lights in accordance with Part 8.

113.   Certain light vehicles used for collection or exhibition purposes

This Part does not apply to a light vehicle built before 1946 that is used mainly for exhibition purposes.
PART 9 - Braking Systems

Note
This Part sets out the braking system requirements for vehicles and combinations to ensure that they can be reliably slowed or stopped even if a part of a braking system fails, and to ensure that a vehicle or combination can be prevented from rolling away when parked.
Division 1 - Brake requirements for all light vehicles

114.   Parts of a braking system

A brake tube or hose fitted to a light vehicle must –
(a) be manufactured from a material appropriate to its intended use in the vehicle; and
(b) be long enough to allow for the full range of steering and suspension movements of the vehicle; and
(c) be fitted to prevent it being damaged during the operation of the vehicle by –
(i) a source of heat; or
(ii) any movement of the parts to which it is attached or near.

115.   Provision for wear

The braking system of a light vehicle must allow for adjustment to take account of normal wear.

116.   Supply of air or vacuum to brakes

(1)  If air brakes are fitted to a light vehicle –
(a) the compressor supplying air to the brakes must be able to build up air pressure to at least 80% of the governor cut-out pressure in not over 5 minutes after the compressed air reserve is fully used up; and
(b) there must be an automatic or manual condensate drain valve at the lowest point of each air brake reservoir in the system; and
(c) any spring brake fitted to the vehicle must not operate before the warning mentioned in regulation 120(4)(a) or regulation 123(3)(a) has been given.
(2)  If vacuum brakes are fitted to a light vehicle, the vacuum supply must be able to build up vacuum –
(a) to the level when the warning signal mentioned in regulation 120(4)(a) or regulation 123(3)(a) no longer operates within 30 seconds after the vacuum reserve is fully used up; and
(b) to the normal working level within 60 seconds after the vacuum reserve is fully used up.

117.   Performance of braking systems

(1)  One sustained application of the brake of a light motor vehicle built after 1930, or a light combination that includes a light motor vehicle built after 1930, must be able to produce the performance mentioned in subregulations (2) , (3) , (4) , (5) , (6) and (7)  –
(a) when the vehicle or combination is on a dry, smooth, level road surface, free from loose material; and
(b) whether or not the vehicle or combination is loaded; and
(c) without part of the vehicle or combination moving outside a straight path –
(i) centred on the longitudinal axis of the vehicle or combination before the brake was applied; and
(ii) 3.7 metres wide.
(2)  The braking system of a light motor vehicle or light combination with a gross mass less than 2.5 tonnes must bring the vehicle or combination from a speed of 35 kilometres an hour to a stop within –
(a) 12.5 metres when the service brake is applied; and
(b) 30 metres when the emergency brake is applied.
(3)  The braking system of a light motor vehicle or light combination with a gross mass of at least 2.5 tonnes must bring the vehicle or combination from a speed of 35 kilometres an hour to a stop within –
(a) 16.5 metres when the service brake is applied; and
(b) 40.5 metres when the emergency brake is applied.
(4)  The braking system of a light motor vehicle or light combination with a gross mass under 2.5 tonnes must decelerate the vehicle or combination, from any speed at which the vehicle or combination can travel, by an average of at least –
(a) 3.8 metres a second a second when the service brake is applied; and
(b) 1.6 metres a second a second when the emergency brake is applied.
(5)  The braking system of a light motor vehicle or light combination with a gross mass of at least 2.5 tonnes must decelerate the vehicle or combination, from any speed at which the vehicle or combination can travel, by an average of at least –
(a) 2.8 metres a second a second when the service brake is applied; and
(b) 1.1 metres a second a second when the emergency brake is applied.
(6)  The braking system of a light motor vehicle or light combination with a gross mass under 2.5 tonnes must achieve a peak deceleration of the vehicle or combination, from any speed at which the vehicle or combination can travel, of at least –
(a) 5.8 metres a second a second when the service brake is applied; and
(b) 1.9 metres a second a second when the emergency brake is applied.
(7)  The braking system of a light motor vehicle or light combination with a gross mass of at least 2.5 tonnes must achieve a peak deceleration of the vehicle or combination, from any speed at which the vehicle or combination can travel, of at least –
(a) 4.4 metres a second a second when the service brake is applied; and
(b) 1.5 metres a second a second when the emergency brake is applied.
(8)  The parking brake of a light vehicle or light combination must be able to hold the vehicle or combination stationary on a 12% gradient –
(a) when the vehicle or combination is on a dry, smooth road surface, free from loose material; and
(b) whether or not the vehicle or combination is loaded.
Division 2 - Motor vehicle braking systems

118.   What braking system a light motor vehicle must have

(1)  In this regulation –
independent brake, for a vehicle, means a brake that is operated entirely separately from any other brake on the vehicle, except for any drum, disc or part, on which a shoe, band or friction pad makes contact, that is common to 2 or more brakes.
(2)  A light motor vehicle with 4 or more wheels built, or used, mainly for transporting goods or people by road must be fitted with –
(a) a braking system that –
(i) consists of brakes fitted to all wheels of the vehicle; and
(ii) has at least 2 separate methods of activation, arranged so that effective braking remains on at least 2 wheels if a method fails; or
(b) 2 independent brakes, each of which, when in operation, acts directly on at least half the number of wheels of the vehicle.
(3)  The braking system of a motor vehicle mentioned in subregulation (2) that was built after 1945 must have a service brake operating on all wheels that, when applied –
(a) acts directly on the wheels and not through the vehicle's transmission; or
(b) acts on a shaft between a differential of the vehicle and a wheel.
(4)  The braking system of a light motor vehicle with 4 or more wheels must have a parking brake that –
(a) is held in the applied position by direct mechanical action without the intervention of an electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic device; and
(b) is fitted with a locking device that can hold the brake in the applied position; and
(c) has its own separate control.
(5)  The parking brake may also be the emergency brake.
(6)  If 2 or more independent brakes are fitted to a light motor vehicle with 4 or more wheels, the brakes must be arranged so that brakes are applied to all the wheels on at least one axle of the vehicle when any brake is operated.
(7)  A motor bike or motor trike must be fitted with –
(a) 2 independent brakes; or
(b) a single brake that acts directly on all wheels of the vehicle and is arranged so that effective braking remains on at least one wheel if a part of the system fails.
(8)  Subregulation (7) applies to a motor bike with a sidecar attached as if the sidecar were not attached.
(9)  A motor trike must have a parking brake that is held in the applied position by mechanical means.

119.   Operation of brakes on light motor vehicles

The braking system on a light motor vehicle must be arranged to allow the driver of the motor vehicle to apply the brakes from a normal driving position.

120.   Air or vacuum brakes on light motor vehicles

(1)  If a light motor vehicle has air brakes, the braking system of the vehicle must include at least one air storage tank.
(2)  If a light motor vehicle has vacuum brakes, the braking system of the vehicle must include at least one vacuum storage tank.
(3)  An air or vacuum storage tank must be built so that the service brake can be applied to meet the performance standards of regulation 117 at least twice if the engine of the light vehicle stops or the source of air or vacuum fails.
(4)  An air or vacuum storage system must –
(a) be built to give a visible or audible warning to the driver, while in a normal driving position, of a lack of air or vacuum that would prevent the service brake from being applied to meet the performance standards of regulation 117 at least twice; and
(b) be safeguarded by a check valve or other device against loss of air or vacuum if the supply fails or leaks.
(5)  However, subregulation (4)(a) does not apply to a light vehicle that is fitted with an air or vacuum assisted braking system.
(6)  If air or vacuum brakes are fitted to a light motor vehicle equipped to tow a trailer, the brakes of the vehicle must be able to stop the vehicle, at the performance standards for emergency brakes under regulation 117 if the trailer breaks away.
Division 3 - Trailer braking system

121.   What brakes light trailers must have

(1)  A light trailer with a GTM over 750 kilograms must have brakes that operate on at least one wheel at each end of one or more axles of the trailer.
(2)  A light semi-trailer or converter dolly with a GTM over 2 tonnes must have brakes that operate on all its wheels.
(3)  Subregulations (1) and (2) do not apply to –
(a) a trailer with a GTM 2 tonnes or less that was built before 1 July 1988; or
(b) a trailer designed mainly for use in a specialised activity such as agriculture or road construction and which is not designed or built to carry a load.

Examples for subregulation (3)(b):

Balers, brooms, mowers, ploughs, rakes and road-rollers

122.   Operation of brakes on light trailers

(1)  The braking system of a light trailer with a GTM over 2 tonnes must allow the driver of a light motor vehicle towing the trailer to operate the brakes from a normal driving position.
(2)  However, subregulation (1) does not apply to a light trailer with a GTM over 2 tonnes built before 1 July 1991.
(3)  The brakes on a light trailer with a GTM over 2 tonnes must –
(a) operate automatically and quickly if the trailer breaks away from the towing vehicle; and
(b) remain in operation for at least 15 minutes after a break-away; and
(c) be able to hold the trailer on a 12% gradient while in operation after a break-away.

123.   Air or vacuum brakes on light trailers

(1)  If a light trailer has air brakes, its braking system must include at least one air storage tank.
(2)  If a light trailer has vacuum brakes, its braking system must include at least one vacuum storage tank.
(3)  An air or vacuum storage system must –
(a) be built to give a visible or audible warning to the driver of the towing vehicle, while in a normal driving position, of a lack of air or vacuum that would prevent the brakes from meeting the performance standards of regulation 117 ; and
(b) be safeguarded by a check valve or other device against loss of air or vacuum if the supply fails or leaks.
(4)  This regulation does not apply to a light trailer with a GTM of 2 tonnes or less.
PART 10 - Control of Emissions
[Part 10 Substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018]

Note
This Part sets out requirements to ensure that motor vehicles do not emit too much smoke or noise and that exhaust gases cannot enter the passenger compartment of a vehicle.
Division 1 - Crank case gases and exhaust emissions
[Division 1 of Part 10 Substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018]

124.   Crank case gases

[Regulation 124 Substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018]
(1)  This regulation applies to a light motor vehicle with 4 or more wheels that –
(a) is powered by a petrol engine; and
(b) was built after 1971.
(2)  The light motor vehicle must be built to prevent, or fitted with equipment that prevents, crank case gases from escaping to the atmosphere.

125.   Visible emissions – light vehicles with internal combustion engines

[Regulation 125 Substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018]
(1)  This regulation applies to a light motor vehicle that –
(a) is propelled by an internal combustion engine; and
(b) was built after 1930.
(2)  The light motor vehicle must not emit visible emissions for a continuous period of at least 10 seconds.
(3)  However, this regulation does not apply to emissions that are visible only because of heat or the condensation of water vapour.

126.   Exhaust emissions – diesel-powered light vehicles

[Regulation 126 Substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018]
(1)  In this regulation –
oxides emission rate means the rate measured in grams of oxides of nitrogen emitted per kilometre travelled by a light vehicle per tonne of the test mass of that light vehicle;
particle emissions rate means the rate measured in grams of particles emitted per kilometre travelled by a light vehicle per tonne of the test mass of that light vehicle;
tare mass, of a vehicle, means the unladen mass of the vehicle, however described;
test mass, of a vehicle, means –
(a) if the vehicle is a light prime mover, half the sum of its tare mass and its GCM; or
(b) for any other light motor vehicle, half the sum of its tare mass and its GVM.

Note: The test mass of a vehicle is the load applied to the dynamometer, while the vehicle is under test, to simulate half payload operation.

(2)  This regulation applies to a light motor vehicle that –
(a) is powered by a diesel engine; and
(b) meets the criteria for a passenger vehicle, including omnibuses and goods vehicles as defined under the ADRs.
(3)  For subregulation (4), a vehicle is taken to have been manufactured in the month shown as the month of its manufacture on the identification plate affixed or taken to be affixed on the vehicle.
(4)  When a vehicle is tested in accordance with regulation 128, the vehicle must comply with the following requirements:
(a) the vehicle must not emit oxides of nitrogen at an oxides emission rate greater than that stated for the vehicle according to its GVM rating and age in the following table:

GVM rating of vehicle

Oxides emission rate

(g/km/t)

 

Vehicle manufactured in December 1995 or earlier

Vehicle manufactured in January 1996 or later

3.5 or less

1.5

1.5

More than 3.5

2.0

2.0

(b) the vehicle must not emit particles at a particle emissions rate greater than that stated for the vehicle according to its GVM rating and age in the following table:

GVM rating of vehicle

Particle emissions rate

(g/km/t)

 

Vehicle manufactured in December 1995 or earlier

Vehicle manufactured in January 1996 or later

3.5 or less

0.23

0.23

More than 3.5

0.23

0.15

(c) the opacity of the exhaust gas emitted by the vehicle must not be greater than 25%, averaged over a test cycle of the vehicle performed in accordance with regulations 127 and 128.

127.   Requirements of DT 80 test cycle

[Regulation 127 Substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018]
(1)  The requirements stated in this regulation are the minimum standards for the dynamometer, emissions measure and data management systems necessary to enable the proper conduct of a test cycle (the DT 80 test cycle) of a vehicle.
(2)  The DT 80 test cycle must be conducted on a chassis dynamometer system that –
(a) can carry out a wide open throttle transient DT 80 test cycle, as described in regulation 128, for the vehicle being tested; and
(b) provides for vehicle speed measurement and display, to an accuracy of ± 1% of actual speed; and
(c) provides internal steady state accuracy of ± 1% of calculated required tractive load over ambient temperatures of 2º-40ºC; and
(d) provides a T95 response time of 3 seconds or less; and
(e) provides inertial loading as required by the DT 80 test cycle procedure at speeds of >15 km/h; and
(f) compensates for aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance and other parasitic losses; and
(g) corrects for ambient temperature, humidity and air density; and
(h) provides torque measurement accuracy of better than 1% full scale; and
(i) keeps roller speed within ± 10 km/h through gear changes; and
(j) restricts overshoot upon initial acceleration of rollers from rest; and
(k) incorporates a driver control panel for remote operation of critical functions from the driver's seat, including controls for the start test and stop test; and
(l) incorporates an emergency system override function; and
(m) is able to communicate speed, load and status signals to enable the driver to undertake the test in accordance with the DT 80 test cycle procedure; and
(n) is integrated with the gas and particulate analysis system to initiate the start and finish of sampling and measurement, and generates emission results without the need for post-test processing.
(3)  The DT 80 test cycle must be conducted on an emissions measurement system that –
(a) is integrated with the dynamometer system specified in subregulation (2); and
(b) has a data averaging interval of one second for all equipment; and
(c) provides emissions data sampling output > or =5Hz; and
(d) measures oxides of nitrogen (from both a diluted and conditioned sample) with an accuracy of ± 30ppm over the range of 0-1 000ppm and ± 5% over the range 1 001-5 000ppm; and
(e) measures particulate matter (from a diluted sample) as TSP or PM 10 with an accuracy of ± 10% on a real-time continuous basis over a range of 0-1 000 mg/m3 actual exhaust concentration at a sample temperature of <51.7ºC; and
(f) measures opacity (from a raw exhaust sample) with an accuracy of ± 1% over a range of 0-100% opacity; and
(g) measures flow rate with an accuracy of ± 5%; and
(h) measures ambient temperature with an accuracy of ± 1ºC over a range of 0º-50ºC; and
(i) measures ambient humidity with an accuracy of ± 5% over a range of 0-100%; and
(j) compensates or corrects for ambient temperature and humidity; and
(k) compensates for exhaust gas transport times and delays; and
(l) provides for on-line calibration of the emissions measurement system; and
(m) provides an exhaust sample collection and conditioning system –
(i) that is optimised to accommodate the exhaust temperature and flow rate, and emission concentration, for the vehicle being tested; and
(ii) that provides adequate conditioning of the exhaust gas to eliminate water in the sample stream and reduce temperatures to enable PM to be sampled at <51.7ºC; and
(n) uses materials and equipment that are compatible with the exhaust from diesel-fuelled vehicles.
(4)  The DT 80 test cycle must be conducted on a data management system that –
(a) is integrated with the dynamometer system specified in subregulation (2) and the emissions measurement system specified in subregulation (3); and
(b) records the following items for each test:
(i) the date, time, location and operator;
(ii) the emissions analyser calibration data;
(iii) vehicle input data, including test mass tractive load corrections and identifying information;
(iv) dynamometer data (load, speed, distance) on a second-by-second basis;
(v) test data on a second-by-second basis from which a mass emission test result in g/km/t can be generated; and
(c) displays, stores and reports all data in the International System of units; and
(d) provides a system for electronic backup of test data to local and remote media; and
(e) incorporates a quality control system that –
(i) ensures that calibrations are carried out in accordance with manufacturers' specifications; and
(ii) provides records consistent with normal audit requirements; and
(f) prints a test report containing at least the following items:
(i) the registered business name, ABN and address of the test facility;
(ii) the registration number, make, model, GVM rating and date of manufacture of the tested vehicle;
(iii) the date and location of the test;
(iv) the final calculated oxides of nitrogen and PM results in g/km/t;
(v) the final calculated opacity results in percentage;
(vi) a statement of pass or fail for each emission compared with the emissions limits stated in regulation 126;
(vii) the signature of the test facility operator confirming that the test was conducted in accordance with the test procedure specified in this regulation and regulation 128.

128.   DT 80 test procedure

[Regulation 128 Substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] For the purposes of regulation 127, the procedure for a DT 80 test cycle is as follows:

Steps

 

1. 

Secure the vehicle on the dynamometer.

2. 

Set the dynamometer to simulate the correct load and inertia for the vehicle.

3. 

Start sampling.

4. 

Idle for 60 seconds.

5. 

Accelerate rapidly to 80 km/h under simulated inertia, using wide open throttle, making gear changes as needed for smooth acceleration.

6. 

Decelerate by removing all pressure from the accelerator pedal, disengaging the gears and gently applying brakes to bring the vehicle to a standstill.

7. 

Idle for 10 seconds.

8. 

Accelerate rapidly to 80 km/h under simulated inertia, using wide open throttle, making gear changes as needed for smooth acceleration.

9. 

Decelerate by removing all pressure from the accelerator pedal, disengaging the gears and gently applying brakes to bring the vehicle to a standstill.

10. 

Idle for 10 seconds.

11. 

Accelerate rapidly to 80 km/h under simulated inertia, using wide open throttle, making gear changes as needed for smooth acceleration.

12. 

Keep speed at 80 km/h for 60 seconds, then stop sampling and bring the vehicle to rest.

Note: Explanation of the test procedure.

This test has been designed to evaluate vehicle emissions during typical 'real-world' operating modes and conditions. There are 3 simple modes –

3 idle periods;

acceleration to 80 km/h 3 times;

keep speed at 80 km/h.

The graph below shows the modes of operation. The actual test will result in a graph that has more variation than the graph below, because of the need to change gears when accelerating. Modes B-D and E-G and H-I have no specific time interval. All the specified time periods have an error margin of ± 1 second.

The vehicle is accelerated rapidly to 80 km/h 3 times by applying wide open throttle.

The driver selects the most appropriate gear change points for the vehicle being tested to achieve the correct speed.

The vehicle's rolling resistance (based on tyre and bearing losses, frontal area and drag coefficient) must also be calculated and continuously factored into the dynamometer tractive effort calculations to ensure correct loading.

Empirical algorithms, based on the vehicle test mass, GVM or other known parameters, may be used to automatically calculate realistic coefficients for the variable.

graphic image

Division 2 - Exhaust systems
[Division 2 of Part 10 Substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018]

129.   Exhaust systems

[Regulation 129 Substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018]
(1)  In this regulation –
bus exhaust outlet means an outlet of an exhaust system fitted to a bus;
motor trike exhaust outlet means an outlet of an exhaust system fitted to a motor trike;
vertical exhaust system means an exhaust system that emits exhaust gases in an upwards direction above or near the top of a vehicle to which the exhaust system is fitted.
(2)  A motor trike exhaust outlet with a permanently enclosed body must –
(a) extend at least 40 millimetres beyond the outermost joint of the floorpan that is not continuously welded or permanently sealed; and
(b) not extend beyond the perimeter of the vehicle.
(3)  A motor trike exhaust outlet must discharge the main exhaust flow to the air –
(a) if the outlet is fitted to the side of the motor trike, to the right hand side of the motor trike and below the horizontal axis of the motor trike at an angle between 15 degrees and 45 degrees; or
(b) if the outlet is fitted to the rear of the motor trike, at an angle between 10 degrees above the horizontal axis of the motor trike and 45 degrees below that axis.
(4)  A bus exhaust outlet must be as near as practicable to the rear of the bus.
(5)  If the bus is not fitted with a vertical exhaust system, the bus exhaust outlet must not extend beyond the perimeter of the bus.
(6)  If the bus is fitted with a vertical exhaust system, the bus exhaust outlet must be located behind the rearmost part of the passenger compartment.
(7)  A bus exhaust outlet must discharge the main exhaust flow to the air –
(a) if the outlet is not part of a vertical exhaust system –
(i) towards the rear, or to the right, of the bus; and
(ii) horizontally or downwards at an angle of not more than 45 degrees below the horizontal axis; or
(b) if the outlet is part of a vertical exhaust system, vertically upwards or towards the rear of the bus at any angle above the horizontal axis.
Division 3 - Noise emissions
[Division 3 of Part 10 Substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018]
Subdivision 1 - General
[Subdivision 1 of Division 3 of Part 10 Substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018]

130.   Measurement of stationary noise levels

[Regulation 130 Substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018]
(1)  In this regulation –
National Transport Commission means the National Transport Commission established by the National Transport Commission Act 2003 of the Commonwealth.
(2)  For this Division, the stationary noise level of a light motor vehicle is to be measured in accordance with the procedure set out for that type of motor vehicle in the report entitled the National Stationary Exhaust Noise Test Procedures for In-service Motor Vehicles, published by the National Transport Commission in September 2006, as in force from time to time.

Note
National Stationary Exhaust Noise Test Procedures for In-service Motor Vehicles (ISBN: 1 921168 50 1) is available on the National Transport Commission's website at www.ntc.gov.au

131.   Meaning of certified to ADR 83/00

[Regulation 131 Substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] For this Division, a light motor vehicle is certified to ADR 83/00 if approval has been given, under section 10A of the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 of the Commonwealth, to place identification plates showing compliance with ADR 83/00 on motor vehicles of that type.

132.   Silencing device for exhaust systems

[Regulation 132 Substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018]
(1)  A light motor vehicle propelled by an internal combustion engine must be fitted with a silencing device through which all the exhaust from the engine passes.
(2)  A silencing device, fitted to a vehicle as required under subregulation (1), that is designed to be manipulated by the vehicle's operator, such as by means of in-vehicle controls, must be designed so that it can be tested with the device fully opened.
Subdivision 2 - Noise levels applying to light motor vehicles certified before the application of ADR 83/00
[Subdivision 2 of Division 3 of Part 10 Substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018]

133.   Application of Subdivision

[Regulation 133 Substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] This Subdivision applies to a light motor vehicle other than a light motor vehicle certified to ADR 83/00.

134.   Stationary noise levels: car-type vehicles and motor bikes and motor trikes

[Regulation 134 Substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018]
(1)  In this regulation –
car-type vehicle means –
(a) a car; or
(b) a utility truck, panel van or other light motor vehicle derived from a car design; or
(c) a light motor vehicle with 4 or more wheels that is built mainly to carry not more than 9 people including the driver.
(2)  The stationary noise level of a car-type vehicle, or motor bike or motor trike, must not exceed –
(a) for a car-type vehicle built after 1982, 90dB(A); or
(b) for another car-type vehicle, 96dB(A); or
(c) for a motor bike or motor trike built after February 1985, 94dB(A); or
(d) for another motor bike or motor trike, 100dB(A).

134A.   Stationary noise levels: other light vehicles with spark ignition engines

[Regulation 134A Inserted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018]
(1)  This regulation applies to a light motor vehicle, other than a light motor vehicle to which regulation 134 applies, with a spark ignition engine.
(2)  The stationary noise level of the light motor vehicle must not exceed the noise level applying to the vehicle under the following table:

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Column 5

Item

GVM (t)

Exhaust height (mm)

When vehicle built

Noise level (dB(A))

1. 

< or = 3.5

< 1500

before July 1983

92

   

after June 1983

89

2. 

> 3.5

< 1500

before July 1983

98

   

after June 1983

95

3. 

< or = 3.5

> or = 1500

before July 1983

88

   

after June 1983

85

4. 

> 3.5

> or = 1500

before July 1983

94

   

after June 1983

91

134B.   Stationary noise levels: other light motor vehicles with diesel engines

[Regulation 134B Inserted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018]
(1)  This regulation applies to a light motor vehicle, other than a motor vehicle to which regulation 134 applies, with a diesel engine.
(2)  The stationary noise level of the light motor vehicle must not exceed the noise level applying to the vehicle under the following table:

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Column 5

Item

GVM (t)

Exhaust height (mm)

When vehicle built

Noise level

(dB(A))

1. 

< or = 3.5

< 1500

before July 1980

105

   

after June 1980 but before July 1983

102

   

after June 1983

99

2. 

> 3.5

< 1500

before July 1980

107

   

after June 1980 but before July 1983

104

   

after June 1983

101

3. 

< or = 3.5

> or = 1500

before July 1980

101

   

after June 1980 but before July 1983

98

   

after June 1983

95

4. 

> 3.5

> or = 1500

before July 1980

103

   

after June 1980 but before July 1983

100

   

after June 1983

97

Subdivision 3 - Noise levels applying to motor vehicles certified to ADR 83/00
[Subdivision 3 of Division 3 of Part 10 Substituted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018]

134C.   Stationary noise levels

[Regulation 134C Inserted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] The stationary noise level of a light motor vehicle that is certified to ADR 83/00 must not exceed, by more than 5dB(A), the noise level that is established for the vehicle when it is certified.
PART 11 - Alternative Fuel Systems

Note
This Part sets out requirements to ensure that LPG (Liquid Petroleum Gas) and CNP (Compressed Natural Gas) fuel systems are safely installed in light motor vehicles. In the case of vehicles with LPG installed, there is an additional requirement to ensure that they can be identified as LPG-powered vehicles.

135.   LPG-powered light vehicles

(1)  A light motor vehicle equipped to run on LPG must comply with the requirements for the use of LPG in vehicles in –
(a) the version of Australian Standard AS 1425 in force at the commencement of this regulation; or
(b) if an earlier version of the standard was current when the vehicle was first equipped to run on LPG, that version.
(2)  A light vehicle equipped to run on LPG must have fixed conspicuously to the front and rear number plates a label that is –
(a) made of durable material; and
(b) at least 25 millimetres wide and 25 millimetres high; and
(c) of a reflective red that conforms with either Australian Standard AS 1743 Road Signs or Part 1 (Retroreflective sheeting) of Australian Standard AS 1906 Retroreflective materials and devices for road traffic control purposes; and
(d) marked "LPGAS" or "LPG", or with words or acronyms to similar effect, in capital letters at least 6 millimetres high.

135A.   Hydrogen-powered light vehicles

[Regulation 135A Inserted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018]
(1)  A light motor vehicle equipped to run on hydrogen supplied via fuel containers fitted to the vehicle, built after 1 January 2019, must have fixed conspicuously to the front and rear number plates, if the vehicle –
(a) is fitted with one hydrogen fuel container, a label that complies with subregulation (2); and
(b) is fitted with 2 or more hydrogen fuel containers, 2 labels that comply with subregulation (2).
(2)  A label to be affixed to a number plate under subregulation (1) must –
(a) be a pentagonal shape where –
(i) each side is 25 millimetres long; and
(ii) each interior angle is 108 degrees; and
(b) be backed by a plate made of metal that –
(i) is at least one millimetre thick before it is affixed to the number plate; and
(ii) also complies with paragraph (a); and
(c) have a yellow surface that complies with class 2 of AS 1906.1 Retroflective Materials and Devices for Road Traffic Control Purposes – Retroflective Sheeting; and
(d) be marked with an "H" in a black capital letter that is at least 10 millimetres high with the base of the "H" being on a side of the label; and
(e) be orientated to ensure that the "H" so marked is correctly orientated on the number plate; and
(f) not be affixed to the number plate in a way that would wholly, or partially, obscure any characters on the number plate.

135B.   Electric-powered vehicles

[Regulation 135B Inserted by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018]
(1)  A light motor vehicle equipped to run on electricity, built after 1 January 2019, must have fixed conspicuously to the front and rear number plates a label that complies with subregulation (2).
(2)  A label to be affixed to a number plate under subregulation (1) must –
(a) be an equilateral triangle shape where –
(i) each side is 35 millimetres long; and
(ii) each interior angle is 60 degrees; and
(b) be backed by a plate made of metal that –
(i) is at least one millimetre thick before it is affixed to the number plate; and
(ii) also complies with paragraph (a); and
(c) have a blue surface that complies with class 2 of AS 1906.1 Retroflective Materials and Devices for Road Traffic Control Purposes – Retroflective Sheeting; and
(d) be marked with an "EV" in white capital letters that are at least 8 millimetres high with the base of the "EV" being on a side of the label; and
(e) be orientated to ensure that the "EV" so marked is correctly orientated on the number plate; and
(f) not be affixed to the number plate in a way that would wholly, or partially, obscure any characters on the number plate.
(3)  For the purposes of subregulation (1), a vehicle is equipped to run on electricity if the vehicle is powered by one or more electric motors or traction motors that –
(a) are the only system of propulsion for the vehicle; or
(b) are used in conjunction with another system of propulsion for the vehicle.
(4)  This regulation does not apply to a light motor vehicle if regulation 135A applies in respect of the vehicle.
PART 12 - Mechanical connections between light vehicles

Note
This Part sets out various requirements to ensure that the couplings used when operating motor vehicles and trailers in combinations are strong enough to hold them together.

136.   General coupling requirements

(1)  A fifth wheel coupling, the mating parts of a coupling, a kingpin or towbar must not be used in a light combination for a load more than the manufacturer's load rating.
(2)  A kingpin in a light combination must be used only with a fifth wheel coupling that has a corresponding jaw size.

Example:

An adaptor must not be used to fit a kingpin to a fifth wheel coupling

(3)  The mating parts of a coupling used to connect a light semi-trailer to a towing vehicle must not allow the semi-trailer to roll to an extent that makes the towing vehicle unstable.

137.   Drawbar couplings

(1)  A coupling for attaching a light trailer to a towing vehicle must be built and fitted so that –
(a) the coupling is equipped with a positive locking mechanism; and
(b) the positive locking mechanism can be released regardless of the angle of the trailer to the towing vehicle.
(2)  If the light trailer in a combination –
(a) is a pig trailer; or
(b) is not fitted with breakaway brakes in accordance with regulation 122  –
it must be connected to the towing vehicle by at least one chain, cable or other flexible device, as well as the coupling required by subregulation (1) .
(3)  The connection referred to in subregulation (2) must be built and fitted so that –
(a) the light trailer is kept in tow if the coupling breaks or accidentally detaches; and
(b) normal angular movement of the coupling is permitted without unnecessary slack.
(4)  If practicable, the connection referred to in subregulation (2) must be built and fitted so the drawbar of the light trailer is prevented from hitting the ground if the coupling accidentally detaches.
(5)  For the purposes of subregulations (3) and (4) , a connection between a light trailer and a towing vehicle includes anything which connects the light trailer and the towing vehicle.

Examples for of what is included in a connection:

Chains

Cables

A thing fixed to a trailer of a towing vehicle to which a chain is attached

Shackles

PART 13 - Bus Construction and Fittings

Note 1
This Part sets out various requirements relating to bus construction and fittings, so that they can be operated safely and without discomfort to drivers and passengers.

Note 2
Some other requirements relating specifically to buses are contained in other provisions of these standards such as regulation 37(3) (rear vision mirrors), regulation 43(5) and (6) (electrical wiring) and regulation 46(3) , (4) and (5) (windows and ventilation).
Division 1 - General construction

138.   Floor, framework, panelling, &c.

(1)  The floor of a bus must be of sound construction and have a non-slip surface.
(2)  The framework of the roof and body of a bus must be constructed of –
(a) steel; or
(b) wood suitably strengthened with steel at all joints; or
(c) other material approved by the Registrar.
(3)  The panelling of the body of a bus must be –
(a) metal; or
(b) fibreglass; or
(c) other material approved by the Registrar.
(4)  The panelling of the roof of a bus must be waterproofed, and constructed of –
(a) metal; or
(b) fibreglass; or
(c) other material approved by the Registrar.
(5)  The interior of the body of a bus must be suitably lined.
(6)  All parts of a bus that are connected by nuts, bolts or studs and subject to vibration must be fastened by –
(a) locknuts; or
(b) castellated nuts effectively pinned with a split pin; or
(c) nuts with spring or locknut washers approved by the Registrar.

139.   Isolation of engine and fuel system, &c.

(1)  The fuel tank or fuel tank filler pipe of a bus must not be fitted within –
(a) the engine compartment of the bus; or
(b) any separate compartment provided for the driver; or
(c) the interior of the bus.
(2)  The fuel tank filler pipe of a bus –
(a) must be so arranged that no overflow or leakage of fuel can accumulate in or on the bus; and
(b) must not, except in the case of a small bus with a seating capacity of not more than 15 adults, including the driver, be fitted within 900 millimetres of an entrance or exit.
(3)  A bus must be fitted with adequate sealing or shielding so as to prevent heat from its motor, generator or exhaust pipe connections from –
(a) injuriously affecting the bus or any part of the bus; or
(b) causing discomfort to passengers.
(4)  The floor of a bus must be sealed so as to prevent fumes from the engine entering the interior of the bus.

140.   Miscellaneous safety requirements

(1)  In this regulation –
articulated bus means a bus with at least 2 rigid sections that allow passengers access between the sections and are connected to allow rotary movement between the sections.
(2)  A bus with a transmission incorporating any longitudinal drive shafts, couplings or intermediate shafts must be designed, built and maintained so that the front end of such a shaft or coupling is prevented from contacting the road in the event of it becoming detached from its normal position.
(3)  If a bus having a single rear axle is equipped to seat more than 15 persons, including the driver, but is not an articulated bus or all-wheel drive bus, it must be fitted with dual tyres.
(4)  A bus must be fitted with a fire extinguisher selected and located in accordance with Australian Standard AS 2444-1985 Portable Fire Extinguishers – Selection and Location.
Division 2 - Entry and exit

141.   Ordinary entrances and exits

In relation to ordinary entrances and exits, a bus must meet the following requirements:
(a) unless otherwise approved by the Registrar, there must be only one ordinary entrance on the left side of the bus;
(b) there must not be an entrance or exit on the right side, other than –
(i) an emergency exit required under regulation 142 ; or
(ii) the driver's door;
(c) the height of an entrance must not be less than the interior height of the vehicle;
(d) an entrance must not be less than 550 millimetres wide.

142.   Emergency exits

(1)  In relation to emergency exits, a bus must meet the following requirements:
(a) an emergency exit accessible to passengers must be fitted –
(i) at the extreme rear of the bus; or
(ii) if the Registrar considers that requirement to be unreasonable for the particular bus, in the rear half of the roof of the passenger compartment;
(b) an emergency exit referred to in paragraph (a) must have an area of not less than –
(i) 5 200 square centimetres, in the case of a small bus; or
(ii) 7 000 square centimetres, in the case of a large bus;
(c) no dimension of an emergency exit referred to in paragraph (a) is to be less than 500 millimetres;
(d) if an emergency exit referred to in paragraph (a)(ii) is provided, an additional exit having an area of not less than 3 200 square centimetres and no dimension less than 500 millimetres must be provided on the right side of the vehicle in the rear half of the passenger compartment;
(e) a suitable means of immediately opening an emergency exit must be available to that exit at all times;
(f) except in the case of an emergency exit known as a "pushout" type, there must be a suitable opening and closing device on both the inside and outside of an emergency exit;
(g) an emergency exit must be kept clear of obstruction and be clearly indicated by the words "EMERGENCY EXIT" displayed both inside and outside the bus.
(2)  However, a bus is not required to be fitted with an emergency exit in accordance with subregulation (1) if it –
(a) is designed and constructed to seat not more than 12 adults including the driver; and
(b) is fitted with one or more doors on each side; and
(c) has an overall width of not more than 2 metres.
(3)  For this regulation, a hinged and latched door fitted to a small bus with a seating capacity of not more than 15 adults, including the driver, may be regarded as an emergency exit if it is capable of being opened outwards from inside the bus.

143.   Doors

A bus must not be fitted with –
(a) an interior door that separates the space normally used by passengers from the access doors or emergency exits; or
(b) an inward-opening door other than a door commonly known as a "jack-knife" or "glide-away" door which is so constructed that no part of it extends beyond the back of the lowest step of the entrance or exit where it is located.

144.   Steps

Each entrance to a bus must be securely fitted with steps that meet the following requirements:
(a) the height of the tread of the lowest step from the ground must not be more than 410 millimetres or less than 250 millimetres;
(b) the height of any step in relation to an adjacent step must not be more than 300 millimetres;
(c) the transverse depth of the tread of each step in a small bus must not be less than 180 millimetres;
(d) the transverse depth of the tread of each step in a large bus must not be less than 225 millimetres;
(e) the width of the tread of the lowest step must not be less than the width of the entrance;
(f) the width of each step, other than the lowest step, must not be less than 450 millimetres;
(g) each step must be fitted with skid-resistant tread;
(h) step treads and risers must be directly illuminated, except in the case of an external access step to a single row of seats for a small bus having a seating capacity of not more than 15 adults, including the driver.
Division 3 - Interior dimensions

145.   Interior height

The distance from the floor of a bus to the centre-line of its roof must not be less than –
(a) 1.2 metres in the case of a small bus with an aisle length not over 2 metres; or
(b) 1.35 metres in the case of any other small bus; or
(c) 1.65 metres in the case of –
(i) each deck of a double-deck bus; or
(ii) a large bus that is not involved in frequent stops for the purpose of picking up or setting down passengers; or
(d) 1.8 metres in the case of a large bus that is involved in frequent stops for the purpose of picking up or setting down passengers.

146.   Aisle width

Unless otherwise approved by the Registrar –
(a) an aisle on a small bus must not be less than 300 millimetres wide; and
(b) an aisle on a large bus must not be less than 300 millimetres wide if the bus is used only to carry seated passengers, and not less than 380 millimetres wide in the case of any other large bus.
Division 4 - Passenger accommodation

147.   Passenger seating

In relation to passenger seating, a bus must meet the following requirements:
(a) each seat must be securely fastened to, or form part of, the body of the bus and be so constructed that reasonable comfort and adequate support is provided for passengers;
(b) a floor space of not less than 200 millimetres must be provided at the front of each seat measured from the vertical plane at the front extremity of the cushion;
(c) in the case of front-facing seats, the horizontal distance between the inside back of each seat and the back of the seat immediately in front must not be less than –
(i) 600 millimetres, in the case of a school bus; or
(ii) 660 millimetres, in the case of any other bus;
(d) the distance between the front of the seat backs of facing seats must not be less than 1.2 metres;
(e) the distance from the floor to the top of each cushion must not be more than 500 millimetres or less than –
(i) 380 millimetres in the case of a school bus; or
(ii) in the case of any other bus –
(A) 300 millimetres if the floor level is interrupted by a wheel housing, engine housing or similar protuberance; or
(B) 400 millimetres in the case of a large bus, and 380 millimetres in the case of a small bus, if the floor level is not interrupted by any protuberance;
(f) the distance from the top of the cushion to the top of the back of each seat must not be less than 380 millimetres;
(g) the distance from the top of the cushion to the bottom of the back of the seat must not be more than 75 millimetres;
(h) the space for each passenger, measured along the front of the seat, must not be less than –
(i) 275 millimetres, in the case of a school bus; and
(ii) 400 millimetres, in the case of any other bus;
(i) the distance from the front to the back of each seat cushion must not be less than 350 millimetres.

148.   Driver seating

The driver's seat on a bus must be –
(a) securely attached to the bus; and
(b) designed and fitted in such a way that the driver can be comfortable and have control of the bus.

149.   Safety and guard rails

(1)  A bus must be fitted with a suitable rail or partition in front of any seat located on the left side of the bus immediately behind a step so as to prevent persons from falling into a step well.
(2)  A large bus must, if the driving position is not otherwise separated from the passenger compartment, be fitted with a suitable guard rail or other structure so as to prevent passengers from –
(a) coming into contact with the driver or the controls; or
(b) obstructing the driver's view.
PART 14 - Other Matters

150.   Vehicle equipment

A vehicle is taken to have equipment mentioned in the Vehicle Standards only if the equipment is in working order.

151.   Restored vehicles

(1)  In this regulation –
restored vehicle means a vehicle that is being, or has been, restored to its manufacturer's specifications, so far as it is practicable to meet the specifications.
(2)  For the Vehicle Standards, a restored vehicle is taken to have been built when it was originally built and not when it was restored.

152.   Retractable axles

(1)  In this regulation –
retractable axle means an axle with a means of adjustment enabling it to be raised or lowered relative to the other axles in the axle group.
(2)  For the Vehicle Standards, a retractable axle is taken to be an axle only when it is in the lowered position.

153.   Measurement of distance between parallel lines

For the Vehicle Standards, a distance between two parallel lines is measured at right angles between the lines.

154.   Interpretation of certain second edition ADRs

The words "left" and "right" in the following second edition ADRs have the opposite meaning in the application of the ADRs, in accordance with the Vehicle Standards, to a motor vehicle with a left-hand drive:
(a) ADR 8 Safety Glass;
(b) ADR 12 Glare Reduction in Field of View;
(c) ADR 14 Rear Vision Mirrors;
(d) ADR 16 Windscreen Wipers and Washers;
(e) ADRs 18 and 18A Location and Visibility of Instruments;
(f) ADRs 35 and 35A Commercial Vehicle Braking Systems.

Note The following table contains a list of some terms used in the third edition ADRs and the corresponding term used in the Vehicle Standards:

Third edition ADRs

Vehicle Standards

dipped-beam headlamp

low-beam (for a headlight)

front fog lamp

front fog light

rear fog lamp

rear fog light

wheelguard

mudguard

main-beam headlamp

high-beam (for a headlight)

reversing lamp

reversing light

direction indicator lamp

direction indicator light

stop lamp

brake light

rear registration plate lamp

number plate light

front position (side) lamp

parking light

rear position (side) lamp

tail light

end-outline marker lamp

front or rear clearance light

external cabin lamp

external cabin light

internal lamp

interior light

side marker lamp

side marker light

daytime running lamp

daytime running light

rear reflex reflector, non-triangular

rear reflector

front reflex reflector, non-triangular

front reflector

side reflex reflector, non-triangular

side reflector

PART 15 - Dictionary

155.   Dictionary

In these regulations –
Act means the Vehicle and Traffic Act 1999 ;
adopted standard see regulation 24 ;
ADR see regulation 14 ;
air brake means an air-operated or air-assisted brake;
ambulance has the same meaning as in the Ambulance Service Act 1982;
Australian Standard means a standard approved for publication on behalf of the Council of the Standards Association of Australia;

Note Copies of Australian Standards are available from offices of the Standards Association of Australia.

axle group means a single axle group, tandem axle group, twinsteer axle group, tri-axle group or quad-axle group;
braking system, of a vehicle, means all the brakes of the vehicle and all the components of the mechanisms by which they are operated;
British Standard means a standard approved for publication on behalf of the British Standards Institution;

Note Copies of British Standards are available from offices of the Standards Association of Australia.

British Standards Institution means the institution of that name established under royal charter in the United Kingdom;
car means a motor vehicle built mainly to carry people that –
(a) seats not over 9 adults including the driver; and
(b) has a body commonly known as a sedan, station wagon, coupe, convertible or roadster; and
(c) has 4 or more wheels;
centre-line, of an axle group, means –
(a) if the group consists of 2 axles, one of which is fitted with twice the number of tyres as the other axle, a line located one-third of the way from the centre-line of the axle with more tyres towards the centre-line of the axle with fewer tyres; and
(b) in any other case, a line located midway between the centre-lines of the outermost axles of the group;
[Regulation 155 Amended by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] conspicuity marking means a conspicuity marking within the meaning of ADR 13/00 as amended or substituted from time to time;
converter dolly means a light trailer with one axle group or a single axle, and a fifth wheel coupling, designed to convert a semi-trailer into a dog trailer;

graphic image

dangerous goods means dangerous goods within the meaning of the Dangerous Goods (Road and Rail Transport) Act 2010 ;
daylight means the period in a day from sunrise to sunset;
dog trailer means a light trailer, including a light trailer consisting of a semi-trailer and converter dolly, with –
(a) one axle group or a single axle at the front that is steered by connection to the towing vehicle by a drawbar; and
(b) one axle group or a single axle at the rear;

graphic image

drawbar means a part of a trailer, except a semi-trailer, connecting the trailer body to a coupling for towing purposes;
drive includes be in control of;
driver, of a vehicle, means the person driving the vehicle;
emergency brake means a brake designed to be used if a service brake fails;
[Regulation 155 Amended by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] exempt vehicle means –
(a) a police vehicle; or
(b) an ambulance; or
(c) an Australian Defence Force vehicle; or
(d) a vehicle operated, approved or authorised under the Fire Service Act 1979 ; or
(e) a transport enforcement vehicle; or
(f) an Australian Border Force Services vehicle; or
(g) an Airservices Australia vehicle; or
(h) a vehicle operated, approved or authorised under the Emergency Management Act 2006 ;
fifth wheel coupling means a device, except the upper rotating element and the kingpin (which are parts of a semi-trailer), used with a prime mover, semi-trailer or converter dolly, to allow quick coupling and uncoupling and to provide for articulation;
front fog light means a light used to improve the illumination of the road in case of fog, snowfall, heavy rain or a dust storm;
glazing means material that may be used in a windscreen, window or interior partition of a motor vehicle, through which the driver of the vehicle can see the road, but does not include a coating added after manufacture of the material;
GTM (gross trailer mass) means the mass transmitted to the ground by the axles of a trailer when the trailer is loaded to its GVM and connected to a towing vehicle;
Heavy Vehicle National Law (Tasmania) has the same meaning as in the Heavy Vehicle National Law (Tasmania) Act 2013 ;
high-beam, for a headlight or front fog light fitted to a vehicle, means that the light is built or adjusted so that, when the vehicle is standing on level ground, the top of the main beam of light projected is above the low-beam position;
large bus means a bus with a seating capacity of more than 25 adults including the driver;
left, for a vehicle, means to the left of the centre of the vehicle when viewed by a person in the vehicle who is facing to the front of the vehicle;
light bus means a bus that is a light motor vehicle;
light combination means a combination that is not a heavy combination within the meaning of the Heavy Vehicle National Law (Tasmania) ;
light motor vehicle means a motor vehicle that is a light vehicle;
light prime mover means a prime mover that is a light vehicle;
light semi-trailer means a semi-trailer that is a light trailer;
light trailer means a trailer that is not a heavy trailer within the meaning of the Heavy Vehicle National Law (Tasmania) ;
low-beam, for a headlight or front fog light fitted to a vehicle, means that the light is built or adjusted so that, when the vehicle is standing on level ground, the top of the main beam of light projected is –
(a) not higher than the centre of the headlight or fog light, when measured 8 metres in front of the vehicle; and
(b) not over one metre higher than the level where the motor vehicle is standing, when measured 25 metres in front of the vehicle;

graphic image

[Regulation 155 Amended by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] luminous transmittance, for glazing or a coating on glazing, means the amount of light that can pass through the glazing as a percentage of the amount of light that would be transmitted if the glazing or coating were absent;
moped means a motor bike or motor trike with an engine cylinder capacity of not over 50 millilitres and a maximum speed of not over 50 kilometres an hour;
motor trike means a motor vehicle that runs on 3 wheels symmetrically arranged in relation to its longitudinal median axis;
mudguard means a fitting or device, with or without a mudflap, that is built and fitted to a vehicle in a way that will, as far as practicable, catch or deflect downwards any stone, mud, water, or other substance, thrown up by the rotation of the wheel to which the fitting or device is fitted;
national standard see regulation 15 ;
pig trailer means a trailer that –
(a) has one axle group or a single axle near the middle of its load-carrying surface; and
(b) is connected to a towing vehicle by a drawbar;
pole-type trailer means a light trailer that –
(a) is attached to a towing vehicle by a pole, or an attachment fitted to the pole; and
(b) is ordinarily used for transporting loads, such as logs, pipes, structural members, or other long objects, that can generally support themselves like beams between supports;
police vehicle means a vehicle driven by a police officer in the course of his or her duty;
quad-axle group means a group of 4 axles in which the horizontal distance between the centre-lines of the outermost axles is over 3.2 metres, but not over 4.9 metres;
rear fog light means a light used on a vehicle to make it more easily visible from the rear in dense fog;
[Regulation 155 Amended by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] rear glazing, in relation to a light motor vehicle, means glazing used in a window or interior partition of the motor vehicle located behind the driver in the normal driving position;
[Regulation 155 Amended by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] rear marking plate means a rear marking plate that complies with Vehicle Standards Bulletin 12 (VSB 12), as amended or substituted from time to time;

Note: The Vehicle Standards Bulletin 12 is available from the National Heavy Vehicle Regulator's website at https://www.nhvr.gov.au/.

repeater horn means a device that makes a sound alternating between different tones or frequencies on a regular time cycle;
right, for a vehicle, means to the right of the centre of the vehicle when viewed by a person in the vehicle who is facing to the front of the vehicle;
school bus means a bus that is being used exclusively for the carriage of schoolchildren, with or without a supervising adult;
second edition ADR see regulation 17 ;
service brake, for a vehicle, means the brake normally used to decelerate the vehicle;
single axle means an axle not forming part of an axle group;
small bus means a bus with a seating capacity of not more than 25 adults including the driver;
spring brake means a brake using one or more springs to store the energy needed to operate the brake;
Standards Association of Australia means the association of that name incorporated in Australia under royal charter;
[Regulation 155 Amended by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018]
[Regulation 155 Amended by S.R. 2018, No. 61, Applied:14 Nov 2018] street rod vehicle is a light vehicle that –
(a) has been modified for safe road use; and
(b) has a body and frame that were built, or is a replica of a vehicle the body and frame of which were built, before 1949;
third edition ADR see regulation 18 ;
transport enforcement vehicle means a vehicle driven or used by authorised officers in the course of their duty;
tri-axle group means a group of at least 3 axles in which the horizontal distance between the centre-lines of the outermost axles is over 2 metres, but not over 3.2 metres;
twinsteer axle group means a group of 2 axles –
(a) with single tyres; and
(b) fitted to a motor vehicle and connected to the same steering mechanism; and
(c) the horizontal distance between the centre-lines of which is at least one metre, but not over 2 metres;
vacuum brakes means vacuum-operated or vacuum-assisted brakes;
Vehicle Standards Bulletin (VSB) means a Vehicle Standards Bulletin published by the Department of the Commonwealth responsible for the administration of road transport, as in force from time to time;
yellow includes amber.
SCHEDULE 1 - Urban areas

Regulation 103

1.   Burnie urban area
The Burnie urban area is that area contained within the imaginary boundary defined by an imaginary line joining the geographical locations on the public streets listed below.
 

Public street

Geographical location

1. 

Bass Highway

Intersection with Besser Crescent

2. 

West Mooreville Road

Intersection with East Cam Road

3. 

Mooreville Road

Intersection with Three Mile Line Road

4. 

Mount Road

Intersection with Old Surrey Road

5. 

Stowport Road

Intersection with Bass Highway

6. 

Bass Highway

Intersection with Clarke Street

2.   Devonport urban area
The Devonport urban area is that area contained within the imaginary boundary defined by an imaginary line joining the geographical locations on the public streets listed below.
 

Public street

Geographical location

1. 

Bass Highway

Intersection with Waverley Road

2. 

Forth Road

Intersection with Bass Highway

3. 

Tugrah Road

Intersection with Powells Creek

4. 

Sheffield Road

Intersection with Clayton Drive

5. 

Mersey Main Road

Intersection with Cornicks Road

6. 

River Road

Intersection with Oakwood Drive

7. 

Bass Highway

Intersection with Port Sorell Main Road

8. 

Brooke Street

Intersection with Pardoe Road

3.   Hobart urban area
The Hobart urban area is that area contained within the imaginary boundary defined by an imaginary line joining the geographical locations on the public streets listed below.
 

Public street

Geographical location

1. 

Midland Highway

Intersection with Ford Road

2. 

Broadmarsh Road

Intersection with Midland Highway

3. 

Boyer Road

Intersection with Midland Highway

4. 

Lyell Highway

Intersection with Midland Highway

5. 

Berriedale Road

Intersection with Allunga Road

6. 

Huon Road

Intersection with Summerleas Road

7. 

Southern Outlet

Intersection with Summerleas Road

8. 

Channel Highway

Intersection with Howden Road

9. 

South Arm Road

Intersection with Acton Road

10. 

Tasman Highway

Intersection with Belbins Road

11. 

Grass Tree Hill Road

Intersection with Sugarloaf Road

12. 

Baskerville Road

Intersection with East Derwent Highway

13. 

Old Beach Road

Intersection with Plymouth Road

14. 

Cove Hill Road

Intersection with Cove Bridge (Jordan River)

15. 

Tea Tree Road

Intersection with Briggs Road

4.   Launceston urban area
The Launceston urban area is that area contained within the imaginary boundary defined by an imaginary line joining the geographical locations on the public streets listed below.
 

Public street

Geographical location

1. 

East Tamar Highway

Intersection with George Town Road

2. 

West Tamar Highway

Intersection with Cormiston Road

3. 

Cormiston Road

Intersection with West Tamar Highway

4. 

Ecclestone Road

Intersection with Rowsphorn Road

5. 

New Ecclestone Road

Intersection with Ecclestone Road

6. 

Reatta Road

Intersection with Lake Trevallyn Road

7. 

Bass Highway

Intersection with Westbury Road

8. 

Midland Highway

Intersection with Evandale Road

9. 

Relbia Road

Intersection with Glenwood Road

10. 

St Leonards Road

Intersection with Kings Lane

11. 

Tasman Highway

Intersection with Abels Hill Road

12. 

Lilydale Road

Intersection with Russells Plains Road

Displayed and numbered in accordance with the Rules Publication Act 1953.

Notified in the Gazette on 25 June 2014

These regulations are administered in the Department of Infrastructure, Energy and Resources.